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Colored tensor models have recently burst onto the scene as a promising conceptual and computational tool in the investigation of problems of random geometry in dimension three and higher. We present a snapshot of the cutting edge in this rapidly expanding research field. Colored tensor models have been shown to share many of the properties of their direct(More)
The aim of this study was to determine the functional role of muscarinic receptor subtypes regulating gallbladder cholinergic contractions. Electrical field stimulation (EFS; 16 Hz) produced contractile responses of guinea pig gallbladder muscle strips in vitro that were inhibited by 1 microM tetrodotoxin (2 +/- 2% of control) and 1 microM atropine (1 +/-(More)
Gallbladder motility is modulated by intrinsic nerves, the identities of which are not well established. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of nicotinic receptor stimulation of intrinsic nerves on gallbladder muscle contractility. Guinea pig gallbladder muscle strips were studied in vitro. Histamine 1 microM was used to increase baseline(More)
The effect of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) on basal and octapeptide of cholecystokinin (OP-CCK) induced tension was examined with guinea pig gallbladder smooth muscle strips in vitro. VIP alone produced dose-related decreases in resting tension and antagonized spontaneous contractile activity where present. In combination with OP-CCK, VIP(More)
The choroidal blood vessels of the eye provide the main vascular support to the outer retina. These blood vessels are under parasympathetic vasodilatory control via input from the pterygopalatine ganglion (PPG), which in turn receives its preganglionic input from the superior salivatory nucleus (SSN) of the hindbrain. The present study characterized the(More)
The tracheobronchial epithelium produces inhibitory substance(s) that alter the tracheal smooth muscle tension. This study examined the effect of changes in extracellular Ca2+ and temperature in vitro on the tension response of rabbit trachealis muscle to mechanical removal of the epithelium. Tension during acetylcholine- and KCl-induced contractions was(More)
The aims of this study were to determine regional differences and the mechanism of gastric contractile effects of erythromycin. Rabbit gastric circular muscle strips were studied in vitro. The threshold dose for erythromycin was significantly less and the maximum contraction greater in the antrum (1 microM and 0.9 +/- 0.3 kg/cm2) than in the fundus (10(More)
Experiments were designed to examine the in vitro effect of progesterone (1.6 X 10(-5) M; 8 X 10(-5) M) on the tone and contractility of guinea pig gallbladder smooth muscle. Muscle strips from animals of both sexes were stimulated with acetylcholine, cholecystokinin-octapeptide, histamine, and potassium prior to and 15 min after exposure to progesterone.(More)
To determine if and how clonidine and tricyclic antidepressants affect gastric contractility. Guinea pig fundic and antral circular muscle strips were studied in vitro. The effects of clonidine or amitriptyline added in graded concentrations on contractions to electric field stimulation (EFS), acetylcholine (ACh), and SP in the presence of(More)
Intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection of either morphine or bombesin to rats inhibits intestinal transit of an intraduodenally administered radiochromium marker. In this work, we show that tolerance develops to this effect of bombesin after i.c.v. infusion of the peptide (0.5 micrograms/h for 4 days via an s.c. implanted Alzet 2001 osmotic minipump).(More)