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In recent years, X-ray imaging of biological cells has emerged as a complementary alternative to fluorescence and electron microscopy. Different techniques were established and successfully applied to macromolecular assemblies and structures in cells. However, while the resolution is reaching the nanometer scale, the dose is increasing. It is essential to(More)
The advent of hard x-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) has opened up a variety of scientific opportunities in areas as diverse as atomic physics, plasma physics, nonlinear optics in the x-ray range, and protein crystallography. In this article, we access a new field of science by measuring quantitatively the local bulk properties and dynamics of matter under(More)
The emergence of hard X-ray free electron lasers (XFELs) enables new insights into many fields of science. These new sources provide short, highly intense, and coherent X-ray pulses. In a variety of scientific applications these pulses need to be strongly focused. In this article, we demonstrate focusing of hard X-ray FEL pulses to 125 nm using refractive(More)
Coherent x-ray diffraction imaging is an x-ray microscopy technique with the potential of reaching spatial resolutions well beyond the diffraction limits of x-ray microscopes based on optics. However, the available coherent dose at modern x-ray sources is limited, setting practical bounds on the spatial resolution of the technique. By focusing the available(More)
Related Articles An instrument for 3D x-ray nano-imaging Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 073703 (2012) Compact Kirkpatrick–Baez microscope mirrors for imaging laser-plasma x-ray emission Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 10E518 (2012) Elemental and magnetic sensitive imaging using x-ray excited luminescence microscopy Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 073701 (2012) Note: Unique(More)
We used hard X-ray scanning microscopy with ptychographic coherent diffraction contrast to image a front-end processed passivated microchip fabricated in 80 nm technology. No sample preparation was needed to image buried interconnects and contact layers with a spatial resolution of slightly better than 40 nm. The phase shift in the sample is obtained(More)
Scanning coherent diffraction microscopy (ptychography) is an emerging hard x-ray microscopy technique that yields spatial resolutions well below the lateral size of the probing nanobeam. Besides a high resolution image of the object, the complex wave field of the probe can be reconstructed at the position of the object. By verifying the consistency of(More)
Using rotationally parabolic refractive x-ray lenses made of beryllium, we focus hard x-ray free-electron laser pulses of the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) down to a spot size in the 100 nm range. We demonstrated efficient nanofocusing and characterized the nanofocused wave field by ptychographic imaging [A. Schropp, et al., Sci. Rep. 3, 1633 (2013)](More)
A nano-focusing module based on two linear Fresnel zone plates is presented. The zone plates are designed to generate a kinoform phase profile in tilted geometry, thus overcoming the efficiency limitations of binary diffractive structures. Adjustment of the tilt angle enables tuning of the setup for optimal efficiency over a wide range of photon energies,(More)
We demonstrate the use of the classical Ronchi test to characterize aberrations in focusing optics at a hard x-ray free-electron laser. A grating is placed close to the focus and the interference between the different orders after the grating is observed in the far field. Any aberrations in the beam or the optics will distort the interference fringes. The(More)