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High-volume endurance exercise (END) improves glycaemic control in type 2 diabetes (T2D) but many individuals cite 'lack of time' as a barrier to regular participation. High-intensity interval training (HIT) is a time-efficient method to induce physiological adaptations similar to END, but little is known regarding the effect of HIT in T2D. Using continuous(More)
Although extraesophageal gastric reflux has been implicated as a cause of many pediatric airway and respiratory diseases, its prevalence in these conditions remains unknown due to the relative lack of sensitivity and/or specificity of traditional reflux testing methods. A prospective study of 222 children (ages 1 day to 16 years) was performed with 24-hour(More)
Prior studies have found that primary rotations in the lumbar spine are accompanied by coupled out-of-plane rotations. However, it is not clear whether these accompanying rotations are primarily due to passive (discs, ligaments and facet joints) or active (muscles) spinal anatomy. The aim of this study was to use a finite element (FE) model of the lumbar(More)
Analytical and computational models of the intervertebral disc (IVD) are commonly employed to enhance understanding of the biomechanics of the human spine and spinal motion segments. The accuracy of these models in predicting physiological behaviour of the spine is intrinsically reliant on the accuracy of the material constitutive representations employed(More)
A canine model was used to investigate the efferent laryngeal responses to stimulation by topically applied acid and pepsin. Five adult mongrel dogs were studied. Electromyographic recordings from the thyroarytenoid muscle were measured with hooked-wire electrodes as an acid solution (normal saline/hydrochloric acid at pH 6.0, 5.0, 4.0, 3.0, 2.5, 2.0, 1.5,(More)
BACKGROUND Although the satellite cell (SC) is a key regulator of muscle growth during development and muscle adaptation following exercise, the regulation of human muscle SC function remains largely unexplored. STAT3 signalling mediated via interleukin-6 (IL-6) has recently come to the forefront as a potential regulator of SC proliferation. The early(More)
STUDY DESIGN Biomechanical analysis of the scoliotic thoracolumbar spine and ribcage using a three-dimensional finite element model. OBJECTIVE To explore how the mechanical properties of spinal ligaments and intervertebral discs affect coronal curve flexibility in the fulcrum bending test. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA Preoperative coronal curve(More)
Laryngomalacia is the most common cause of stridor in children. Previous studies using barium esophagrams or single-probe esophageal pH testing have indicated that 68% to 80% of infants with laryngomalacia have reflux. A recent study in a large series of pediatric patients has shown that these 2 testing modalities are relatively insensitive in detecting(More)
Current complication rates for adolescent scoliosis surgery necessitate the development of better surgical planning tools to improve outcomes. Here we present our approach to developing finite element models of the thoracolumbar spine for deformity surgery simulation, with patient-specific model anatomy based on low-dose pre-operative computed tomography(More)
BACKGROUND In vitro investigations have demonstrated the importance of the ribcage in stabilizing the thoracic spine. Surgical alterations of the ribcage may change load-sharing patterns in the thoracic spine. Computer models are used in this study to explore the effect of surgical disruption of the rib-vertebrae connections on ligament load-sharing in the(More)