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The kinetics of G-protein-coupled receptor activation and deactivation has, so far, been measured only indirectly, most frequently by assessing the production of various second messengers. We have developed methods based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer to quantify the kinetics of receptor activation by agonist (measured as conformational change in(More)
Several lines of evidence suggest that G-protein-coupled receptors can adopt different active conformations, but their direct demonstration in intact cells is still missing. Using a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based approach we studied conformational changes in alpha(2A)-adrenergic receptors in intact cells. The receptors were C-terminally(More)
After stimulation with agonist, G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) activate G proteins and become phosphorylated by G protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs), and most of them translocate cytosolic arrestin proteins to the cytoplasmic membrane. Agonist-activated GPCRs are specifically phosphorylated by GRKs and are targeted for endocytosis by arrestin(More)
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