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The field L complex is thought to be the highest auditory centre and the input in the song vocal nuclei. Different anatomical and functional subdivisions have been described in field L. Auditory neurons of field L are well activated by natural sounds and especially by species-specific sounds. A complex sound coding appears to exist in field L. However,(More)
During the last decade several peptides have been extensively studied for their ability to translocate across the plasma membrane. These peptides have been called "cell penetrating peptides" (CPP) or "protein transduction domains" (PTD). These peptides also promote the cellular uptake of various cargo molecules. Their mechanism of cellular entry appeared(More)
Previous studies on starling song had shown that different categories of songs are produced and discriminated. In the present study, both playback experiments in the field and electrophysiological recordings of single cells in field L (main central auditory area) were used in order to understand the perceptual bases of category recognition. In both cases,(More)
A simple covalent enzyme-linked immunoassay procedure (CELIA) is described for the routine determination of free and immune complex-bound antibodies in sera. Assays for the latter could not have been performed by adsorption ELISA due to the high ionic strength of the reassociating buffer. For the measurement in human sera of free naturally occurring IgG and(More)
The evaluation of spectro-temporal receptive fields in auditory neurons makes use of a correlation technique that needs a high amount of calculation time. We present a method in which 2-ms time bins of post-stimulus time histograms, rather than every action potential, are the basis for correlation with the acoustic spectrum of the stimulus. In a t test the(More)
In the present study, using a systematic recording method and a variety of stimuli, we determined the proportion of responsive sites and their response features in the vocal control nucleus HVC of awake-restrained starlings, a species with multiple song types. Responsive sites were classified into three groups, according to the number of stimuli to which(More)
CPPs (cell-penetrating peptides) have given rise to much interest for the delivery of biomolecules such as peptides, proteins or ONs (oligonucleotides). CPPs and their conjugates were initially thought to translocate through the cell membrane by a non-endocytotic mechanism which has recently been re-evaluated. Basic-amino-acid-rich CPPs first interact with(More)
A massive fish kill affecting exclusively common carp (Cyprinus carpio carpio) in the St. Lawrence River, Québec, Canada, during the summer of 2001 was investigated by use of laboratory diagnostic methods and by an attempt to experimentally induce the disease. The ultimate causes of mortality were opportunistic bacterial infections with Aeromonas hydrophila(More)
Recent literature on the Field L of songbirds, showing that some neurons present a clear selectivity towards complex sounds, especially conspecific songs, is reviewed. Furthermore, studies on European starlings have revealed a complex functional organization in this central auditory area, with subareas exhibiting different response features. Interestingly,(More)
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