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MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are single-stranded noncoding RNAs of 19 to 25 nucleotides that function as gene regulators and as a host cell defense against both RNA and DNA viruses. We provide evidence for a physiological role of the miRNA-silencing machinery in controlling HIV-1 replication. Type III RNAses Dicer and Drosha, responsible for miRNA processing,(More)
The distribution of risk factors for cardiovascular disease in patients aged 35-44 years who were treated for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection was compared with that for a population-based cohort. HIV-1-infected men treated with a protease inhibitor-containing regimen (n=223), compared with HIV-1-uninfected men (n=527), were(More)
We have compared various sample preparation methods for the PCR diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) using peripheral blood samples and tested the influence of these protocols upon sensitivity. Four methods of lysis-DNA extraction were used with two types of blood samples: whole blood (WB) and buffy coat (BC). Comparisons were first carried out with(More)
OBJECTIVE AND DESIGN We have recently shown that the number of CCR5 molecules at the surface of peripheral blood CD4 T cells (CCR5 density) correlates with the viral RNA plasma level in HIV-1-infected individuals. As viral load is a strong predictor of outcome in HIV infection, the present study examines the correlation between CCR5 density and HIV-1(More)
BACKGROUND Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients have decreased immune response to vaccines. Few data are available about pandemic flu vaccination in this population. METHODS We conducted a multicenter, patient-blinded, randomized trial in a cohort of HIV-infected adults. Patients received 2 injections 21 days apart of a AS03(A)-adjuvanted(More)
PURPOSE To evaluate the safety and efficacy of rituximab adjunction to the cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (CHOP) regimen in patients with newly diagnosed AIDS-related non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. PATIENTS AND METHODS HIV-seropositive patients with high-grade lymphoma of B-cell origin were eligible if they had no more than one of the(More)
BACKGROUND The T-20 vs. Optimized Regimen Only Study 2 (TORO 2) compared the efficacy and safety of 24 weeks of treatment with the fusion inhibitor enfuvirtide in combination with an optimized background antiretroviral regimen with the efficacy and safety of the optimized background regimen alone. METHODS The patients had previous treatment with each of(More)
OBJECTIVE To describe the evolving epidemiology, management, and risk factors for death of invasive Candida infections in intensive care units (ICUs). DESIGN Prospective, observational, national, multicenter study. SETTING One hundred eighty ICUs in France. PATIENTS Between October 2005 and May 2006, 300 adult patients with proven invasive Candida(More)
We developed a highly sensitive PCR method that enables the diagnosis and posttherapeutic follow-up of visceral leishmaniasis with patient blood. The PCR assay was thoroughly optimized by successive procedural refinements to increase its sensitivity and specificity. It was compared to in vitro cultivation as well as to direct examination of bone marrow and(More)
OBJECTIVE The percentage and the activity of natural killer (NK) cells are known to be decreased in HIV-infected patients. However, the mechanisms responsible for this NK deficiency are poorly understood. Because of the role of NK cells in the host defence against microbial infections, this defect contributes to the virus-induced immune deficiency. The aim(More)