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Opioid drugs play important roles in the clinical management of pain, as well as in the development and treatment of drug abuse. The mu opioid receptor is the primary site of action for the most commonly used opioids, including morphine, heroin, fentanyl, and methadone. By sequencing DNA from 113 former heroin addicts in methadone maintenance and 39(More)
In cells undergoing apoptosis (programmed cell death), a fraction of nuclear DNA is fragmented to the size equivalent of DNA in mono- or oligonucleosomes. When such DNA is analyzed by agarose gel electrophoresis it generates the characteristic "ladder" pattern of discontinuous DNA fragments. Such a pattern of DNA degradation generally serves as a marker of(More)
DNA strand breaks which occur in HL-60 cells as a result of activation of endonuclease during apoptosis induced by cell treatment with the DNA topoisomerase I inhibitor camptothecin and topoisomerase II inhibitors teniposide, 4'-(9-acridinylamino)-3-methanesulfon-m-anisidide, and fostriecin were labeled in situ, in individual fixed and permeabilized cells,(More)
Brain expression of CB2 cannabinoid receptors has been much less well established and characterized in comparison to the expression of brain CB1 receptors. Since CB2 receptors are intensely expressed in peripheral and immune tissues, expression in brain microglia has been anticipated. Nevertheless, we now describe expression of CB2-receptor-like(More)
The studies were aimed to detect the cell cycle-associated differences in the susceptibility of HL-60 cells to apoptosis induced by diverse agents. Exponentially growing HL-60 cells were treated with the DNA topoisomerase I inhibitor camptothecin; the DNA topoisomerase II inhibitors teniposide, m-AMSA, Mitoxantrone, or Fostriecin; the presumed tyrosine(More)
Two well-characterized cannabinoid receptors (CBrs), CB1 and CB2, mediate the effects of cannabinoids and marijuana use, with functional evidence for other CBrs. CB1 receptors are expressed primarily in brain and peripheral tissues. For over a decade several laboratories were unable to detect CB2 receptors in brain and were known to be intensely expressed(More)
The aim of this study was to compare three methods of detection of apoptotic cells: (1) the method based on elution of low molecular weight DNA from the ethanol fixed cells followed by cell staining with DAPI (diamidino-2-phenylindole) or propidium iodide as the DNA fluorochromes, (2) the method of in situ labeling of DNA strand breaks with biotinylated(More)
BACKGROUND Addiction and major depression are mental health problems associated with stressful events in life with high relapse and reoccurrence even after treatment. Many laboratories were not able to detect the presence of cannabinoid CB2 receptors (CB2-Rs) in healthy brains, but there has been demonstration of CB2-R expression in rat microglial cells and(More)
Transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1 has a biphasic effect on rat intestinal epithelial (RIE) cells. By itself, TGF-beta1 functions as a tumor suppressor by inhibiting the growth, migration and invasion of RIE cells. We show in this study that in conjunction with epidermal growth factor (EGF), TGF-beta1 helped to augment migration, invasion and(More)
Targeting of protein modification enzymes is a key biochemical step to achieve specific and effective posttranslational modifications. Two alternatively spliced ZIP1 and ZIP2 proteins are described, which bind to both Kvbeta2 subunits of potassium channel and protein kinase C (PKC) zeta, thereby acting as a physical link in the assembly of(More)