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Criteria for the diagnosis of vascular dementia (VaD) that are reliable, valid, and readily applicable in a variety of settings are urgently needed for both clinical and research purposes. To address this need, the Neuroepidemiology Branch of the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) convened an International Workshop with support(More)
Twenty-two rats were subjected to 8, 15, 30, or 60 minutes of temporary middle cerebral artery occlusion (n = 5 per group) or sham occlusion (n = 2) in the magnetic resonance imaging unit. Diffusion-, perfusion-, and T2-weighted imaging were acquired before and during occlusion, and after reperfusion. A coregistration method was used to correlate the acute(More)
Five cases of supratentorial gliosarcomas occurring in middle-aged and elderly patients are reported. In the gliomatous portions of the tumors there were areas with clusters and ribbons of cuboidal cells forming a cribriform pattern and structures resembling ducts and glands of a metastatic adenocarcinoma. Where the adenoid structures were embedded in a(More)
Changes in body weight and taste aversion in the learned helplessness paradigm were examined. In Experiment 1, adult male Sprague-Dawley rats drank saccharin or a control solution, followed by either 100 inescapable shocks or simple restraint. Rats were weighted daily and were tested for saccharin aversion two days after the stress session. Shocked rats(More)
Conditioned flavor aversions (CFA) are acquired by anesthetized rats but effects of various anesthetics on acquisition of aversions for separate odor and taste components are unknown. In Experiment 1, rats drank tomato juice and then were tranquilized with "Innovar-Vet" or "Rompun" before receiving injections of lithium chloride. Neither drug interfered(More)
When an odor conditioned stimulus (CS) precedes illness (unconditioned stimulus; UCS), rats acquire relatively weak odor aversions. Conversely, when a compound odor-taste (flavor) CS precedes illness, rats acquire robust aversions both to the odor and to the taste components of a compound flavor CS. Thus, tastes potentiate odor-illness aversions during(More)
Potentiation of odor by taste in rats was tested in a variety of situations. In three experiments, almond odor and saccharin taste were presented either as a single conditioned stimulus (CS) or as a compound CS and followed by either toxic lithium chloride or footshock. Extinction tests with the almond and saccharin components were then given. In single(More)
Unilateral, transient (30, 60, and 120 minutes (min)) middle-cerebral-artery (MCA) occlusion was induced via transorbital craniotomy in 11 waking subhuman primates. Local cerebral blood flow (LCBF) was calculated from hydrogen clearance curves obtained through the use of intracerebral platinum microelectrodes. Unilateral MCA occlusion decreased LCBF in the(More)