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To date, most Leishmania and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) coinfection cases reported to WHO come from Southern Europe. Up to the year 2001, nearly 2,000 cases of coinfection were identified, of which 90% were from Spain, Italy, France, and Portugal. However, these figures are misleading because they do not account for the large proportion of cases in(More)
The risk for reintroduction of some exotic vector-borne diseases in Europe has become a hot topic, while the reality of others is neglected at the public health policy level. Leishmaniasis is endemic in all southern countries of Europe, with approximately 700 autochthonous human cases reported each year (3,950 if Turkey is included). Asymptomatic cases have(More)
Multilocus enzyme electrophoresis is the gold standard for identification of Leishmania species and strains. Drawbacks include: only amino acid polymorphisms affecting electrophoretic mobility are detected; distinct allozymes can have coincident mobilities; few characters are available; and parasites must be cultured in bulk. So far, thousands of Leishmania(More)
Leishmaniasis is a geographically widespread severe disease, with an increasing incidence of two million cases per year and 350 million people from 88 countries at risk. The causative agents are species of Leishmania, a protozoan flagellate. Visceral leishmaniasis, the most severe form of the disease, lethal if untreated, is caused by species of the(More)
This study describes a new focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) due to Leishmania tropica, in the Galilee region of northern Israel. Thirty-three cases from 4 villages (northern part) and from the city of Tiberias (southern part) have been clinically diagnosed since 1996. Parasites from 13 patients and from 6 sand flies were characterized by isoenzyme(More)
A series of 1048 Leishmania strains from Old World cutaneous leishmaniasis foci, isolated between 1981 and 2005, were studied by isoenzyme analysis. The strains were obtained from humans, rodents, dogs and sandflies from 33 countries. The four typically dermotropic species, Leishmania major, L. tropica, L. aethiopica and L. killicki, were found. The(More)
Canine leishmaniasis (CanL) is a zoonotic disease caused by Leishmania infantum, a Trypanosomatid protozoan transmitted by phlebotomine sandflies. Leishmaniasis is endemic in southern France, but the influences of environmental and climatic factors on its maintenance and emergence remain poorly understood. From a retrospective database, including all the(More)
In the south of France, leishmaniasis due to Leishmania infantum occurs in the following five foci of endemicity (from west to east): Pyrénées-Orientales, Cévennes, Provence, Côte d'Azur, and Corsica. Between 1981 and 2002, 712 Leishmania strains obtained from humans, dogs, cats, and sand flies were studied by isoenzyme analysis. In total, seven zymodemes(More)
The predominant sand fly species collected inside houses in Kfar Adumim, an Israeli village in the Judean Desert that is a focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis, was Phlebotomus papatasi, which was also caught attempting to bite humans. Phlebotomus sergenti, which is rarely seen inside houses, constituted the predominant sand fly species in caves near the(More)