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Oligonucleotide and complementary DNA microarrays are being used to subclassify histologically similar tumours, monitor disease progress, and individualize treatment regimens. However, extracting new biological insight from high-throughput genomic studies of human diseases is a challenge, limited by difficulties in recognizing and evaluating relevant(More)
BACKGROUND Diagnosis of acute infection in the critically ill remains a challenge. We hypothesized that circulating leukocyte transcriptional profiles can be used to monitor the host response to and recovery from infection complicating critical illness. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS A translational research approach was employed. Fifteen mice underwent(More)
A cornerstone of modern biomedical research is the use of mouse models to explore basic pathophysiological mechanisms, evaluate new therapeutic approaches, and make go or no-go decisions to carry new drug candidates forward into clinical trials. Systematic studies evaluating how well murine models mimic human inflammatory diseases are nonexistent. Here, we(More)
The Gene Ontology (GO) vocabulary has been extensively explored to analyze the functions of coexpressed genes. However, despite its extended use in Biology and Medical Sciences, there are still high levels of uncertainty about which ontology (i.e. Molecular Process, Cellular Component or Molecular Function) should be used, and at which level of specificity.(More)
Human survival from injury requires an appropriate inflammatory and immune response. We describe the circulating leukocyte transcriptome after severe trauma and burn injury, as well as in healthy subjects receiving low-dose bacterial endotoxin, and show that these severe stresses produce a global reprioritization affecting >80% of the cellular functions and(More)
The analysis of gene expression data in clinical medicine has been plagued by the lack of a critical evaluation of accepted methodologies for the collection, processing, and labeling of RNA. In the present report, the reliability of two commonly used techniques to isolate RNA from whole blood or its leukocyte compartment was compared by examining their(More)
—Current tools and techniques devoted to examine the content of large databases are often hampered by their inability to support searches based on criteria that are meaningful to their users. These shortcomings are particularly evident in data banks storing representations of structural data such as biological networks. Conceptual clustering techniques have(More)
Control of the rate of cell death relative to the rate of cell division maintains organ integrity and physiological homeostasis. Cell death is valuable for the organism because it removes terminally injured or unwanted cells that utilize valuable substrates and nutrients. Likewise, cell death also has value for the species, as it provides a mechanism for(More)
Traumatic injuries frequently lead to infection, organ failure, and death. Health care providers rely on several injury scoring systems to quantify the extent of injury and to help predict clinical outcome. Physiological, anatomical, and clinical laboratory analytic scoring systems (Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation [APACHE], Injury Severity(More)