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Oligonucleotide and complementary DNA microarrays are being used to subclassify histologically similar tumours, monitor disease progress, and individualize treatment regimens. However, extracting new biological insight from high-throughput genomic studies of human diseases is a challenge, limited by difficulties in recognizing and evaluating relevant(More)
BACKGROUND Diagnosis of acute infection in the critically ill remains a challenge. We hypothesized that circulating leukocyte transcriptional profiles can be used to monitor the host response to and recovery from infection complicating critical illness. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS A translational research approach was employed. Fifteen mice underwent(More)
A cornerstone of modern biomedical research is the use of mouse models to explore basic pathophysiological mechanisms, evaluate new therapeutic approaches, and make go or no-go decisions to carry new drug candidates forward into clinical trials. Systematic studies evaluating how well murine models mimic human inflammatory diseases are nonexistent. Here, we(More)
The Gene Ontology (GO) vocabulary has been extensively explored to analyze the functions of coexpressed genes. However, despite its extended use in Biology and Medical Sciences, there are still high levels of uncertainty about which ontology (i.e. Molecular Process, Cellular Component or Molecular Function) should be used, and at which level of specificity.(More)
Patients with sepsis have impaired host defenses that contribute to the lethality of the disorder. Recent work implicates lymphocyte apoptosis as a potential factor in the immunosuppression of sepsis. If lymphocyte apoptosis is an important mechanism, specific subsets of lymphocytes may be more vulnerable. A prospective study of lymphocyte cell typing and(More)
Human survival from injury requires an appropriate inflammatory and immune response. We describe the circulating leukocyte transcriptome after severe trauma and burn injury, as well as in healthy subjects receiving low-dose bacterial endotoxin, and show that these severe stresses produce a global reprioritization affecting >80% of the cellular functions and(More)
The analysis of gene expression data in clinical medicine has been plagued by the lack of a critical evaluation of accepted methodologies for the collection, processing, and labeling of RNA. In the present report, the reliability of two commonly used techniques to isolate RNA from whole blood or its leukocyte compartment was compared by examining their(More)
Dendritic cells (DCs) are a group of APCs that have an extraordinary capacity to interact with T and B cells and modulate their responses to invading pathogens. Although a number of defects in the immune system have been identified in sepsis, few studies have examined the effect of sepsis on DCs, which is the purpose of this study. In addition, this study(More)
For the past century, students of shock have focused research efforts to illuminate specific mechanisms that cause, or fail as a consequence of, circulatory collapse. Although clinical strategies aimed at supporting or restoring individual organ systems have proven effective, many patients succumb to more generalized multiple organ system failure. We(More)
—Current tools and techniques devoted to examine the content of large databases are often hampered by their inability to support searches based on criteria that are meaningful to their users. These shortcomings are particularly evident in data banks storing representations of structural data such as biological networks. Conceptual clustering techniques have(More)