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Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is synthesized by two isoforms of the pyridoxal 5'-phosphate-dependent enzyme glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD65 and GAD67). GAD67 is constitutively active and is responsible for basal GABA production. In contrast, GAD65, an autoantigen in type I diabetes, is transiently activated in response to the demand for extra GABA in(More)
The smaller isoform of the GABA-synthesizing enzyme, glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 (GAD65), is unusually susceptible to becoming a target of autoimmunity affecting its major sites of expression, GABA-ergic neurons and pancreatic beta-cells. In contrast, a highly homologous isoform, GAD67, is not an autoantigen. We used homolog-scanning mutagenesis to(More)
Autoantibodies to the 65-kDa isoform of glutamate decarboxylase GAD65 (GAD65Ab) are strong candidates for a pathological role in Stiff-Person syndrome (SPS). We have analyzed the binding specificity of the GAD65Ab in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of 12 patients with SPS by competitive displacement studies with GAD65-specific rFab-derived from a number(More)
Antibodies to glutamic acid decarboxylase-65 (GAD65) are present in a number of autoimmune disorders, such as insulin-dependent (type 1) diabetes mellitus (IDDM), stiff man syndrome, and polyendocrine autoimmune disease. Antibodies to GAD in IDDM patients usually recognize conformation-dependent regions on GAD65 and rarely bind to the second isoform,(More)
The luteinizing hormone/choriogonadotropin (LH/CG) receptor (R) is a heptahelical R that, upon agonist binding, activates the stimulatory guanine nucleotide-binding protein (Gs) and the downstream effector adenylyl cyclase (AC). Like other G protein-coupled Rs, the LH/CG R subsequently exhibits reduced agonist-dependent effector activity, or(More)
We have characterized four murine monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to the extracellular domain of the human TSH receptor (TSH-R.E), the target autoantigen of Graves' disease. Recombinant TSH-R.E used as immunogen, was produced in E. coli as a fusion protein with glutathione-S-transferase or in a baculovirus-insect cell system, as a non-fusion glycoprotein. To(More)
Autoantibodies to the 65-kDa isoform of GAD (GAD65Abs) are associated with type 1 diabetes development, but the conformational nature of the GAD65Ab epitopes complicates the evaluation of disease risk. Six GAD65-specific recombinant Fabs (rFabs) were cloned from monoclonal antibodies b96.11, DP-C, DP-A, DPD, 144, and 221-442. The binding of GAD65Abs in 61(More)
Successful islet transplantation is dependent on the quality and quantity of islets infused. Islets are purified on density gradients, but procedures currently used have limited capacity for pancreatic digests, islet yield, and viability. We aimed to improve islet purification with a modified gradient medium. Biocoll was diluted in University of Wisconsin(More)