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Cellulolytic microorganisms play an important role in the biosphere by recycling cellulose, the most abundant carbohydrate produced by plants. Cellulose is a simple polymer, but it forms insoluble, crystalline microfibrils, which are highly resistant to enzymatic hydrolysis. All organisms known to degrade cellulose efficiently produce a battery of enzymes(More)
The Rhizobium strain ORS571, which is associated with the tropical legume Sesbania rostrata, has the property of growing in the free-living state at the expense of ammonia or N(2) as sole nitrogen source. Five mutants, isolated as unable to form colonies on plates under conditions of nitrogen fixation, were studied. All of them, which appear as Fixin(More)
The nucleotide sequence of the celA gene, encoding the extracellular endoglucanase A of Clostridium thermocellum, was determined and compared with the NH2-terminal amino acid sequence of the purified enzyme. The mature protein appeared to be extended by a signal sequence of 32 amino acids. A segment of 23 amino acids was duplicated at the COOH-terminal end(More)
The celC gene, which codes for a new endoglucanase of Clostridium thermocellum, termed endoglucanase C, was found to be expressed when cloned in Escherichia coli. The enzyme was purified to electrophoretic homogeneneity from E. coli and its biochemical properties were studied. It differs from the previously studied endoglucanases A and B. In particular,(More)
Glutamine synthetase (GS) was purified to electrophoretic homogeneity from the obligate anaerobic archaebacterium Methanobacterium ivanovi. The 130-fold-purified enzyme was obtained by heat treatment, ion-exchange chromatography, and gel filtration. Like all other eubacterial GSs known so far, the GS of M. ivanovi was found to be a dodecamer of about(More)
Interest in strontium and its relation to calcium metabolism dates back over 20 years. At that time, radioactive calcium (Car) was relatively unavailable. It was thought that radioactive strontium (Srr), which was more readily available and which can be detected more simply, might serve as a substitute tracer for Car. Early experiments (1-3) confirmed this(More)
Transcripts of the Clostridium thermocellum endoglucanase genes celF and celD, encoding endoglucanases F and D, respectively, were characterized. The size of the mRNAs was about 2.35 kb for celF and 2.1 kb for celD, indicating monocistronic transcription of both genes. A unique 5' end, located 218 bp upstream from the initiation codon, was found for celF(More)
The semiquantitative distribution of mRNA encoding for rat galanin receptor (GAL-R1) was examined by in situ hybridization in the rat hypothalamus using a 35S-riboprobe. Most hypothalamic nuclei expressed GAL-R1 mRNA. In the anterior hypothalamus, high levels of expression were found in the medial preoptic area, paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei.(More)
Using a combination of radioactive and non-radioactive in situ hybridizations, the expression of mu and kappa opioid receptor mRNA was investigated in neurons in the female rat preoptic nucleus expressing galanin and gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) mRNA. Numerous cells expressing both mu or kappa and galanin were found in the intermediate and rostral(More)