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Preparing the German Spacelab Mission D-2 project "Gravity Perception and Neuronal Plasticity"--STATEX II--ground based experiments have been performed with larvae of the amphibian vertebrate Xenopus laevis Daud. to study the reactions to different levels of acceleration forces and profiles. The larvae have been exposed to accelerations of up to 5 g for(More)
The paper sums up results of a 7-day space flight experiment (D-l-Mission-BW-STA 00-STATEX) using growing frog embryos and larvae (Xenopus laevis) as a model system. Evaluation of photographs taken from the surface of sectioned deep-frozen objects, and micrographs using TEM and SEM show no aberrations in the shape, size, position, or respective electron(More)
This paper builds on initial work on specifying robot motion using human-inspired motor programs. The existing method relies on a series of square wave torque pulses to actuate the robot. Using such pulses to produce motions with a robot will generate large peaks in absolute jerk — change in acceleration per unit time — which can damage the(More)
O ne possibility of analyzing the formation of organisms is the investigation of functional ripening of cells and organs in a stimulus-free environment. For example, the optical centers of vertebrates attain their final functional performance only under stimulus from the optical environment. The information content of the genome is evidently not sufficient(More)
Organisms use gravity for spatial orientation, and differentiation into species during evolution follows geological processes which are caused by gravity. On the other hand, the task of most organismic functions which have or may have a relation to gravity is to compensate gravity. Furthermore, today it is very obvious that organisms do not disintegrate(More)
The paper describes an investigation of the influence of gravity on the early differentiation of gravity receptors in Xenopus embryos and larvae. There is evidence that the expression of crystals in the saccus endolymphaticus was statistically greater when the embryos developed in near weightlessness (hypogravity) than on earth. The function of these(More)
limonene/ozone (Table 2). Ozone production rates ([03]ma × divided by irradiation time) for linalool ranged from 0.32 to 0.39 ppb rain -1 and are comparable to those found by the photooxidation of toluene and isoprene (0.36 to 0.45ppbmin -1) and higher than the corresponding values measured for aand fl-pinene (0.1 to 0.24 ppb min-1). Changes in relative(More)
A theoretical model is presented that describes the volume scattering in thin optical films, particularly in typical columnar structures. It is based on a first-order perturbation theory that concerns the fluctuation of the dielectric permittivity in the film. For evaporated PbF(2) films that show a pronounced columnar morphology, angular as well as total(More)
The development of embryonic and larval stages of the South African Toad Xenopus laevis D, was investigated in hyper-g up to 5 g (centrifuge), in simulated 0 g (fast-rotating clinostat), in alternating low g, hyper-g (parabolic flights) and in microgravity (Spacelab missions D1, D-2). The selected developmental stages are assumed to be very sensitive to(More)
  • J. Neubert
  • Aviation, space, and environmental medicine
  • 1979
Electronmicroscopy was used to track the development of the gravity system of frog embryos and larvae which have bred for 5, 7, and 10 d after egg fertilization under conditions of simulated weightlessness on the fast-running horizontal clinostat. Although no differences in the morphologic structure of the organ between test and control animals could be(More)