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We justify the feasibility of substituting a photon leg by a neutrino current in the Euler–Heisenberg Lagrangian to obtain an effective Lagrangian for the process γν → γγν and its crossed reactions. We establish the link between these processes and the four-photon scattering in both the Standard Model and the effective theory. As an application, we compute(More)
This report was produced at the request of Women, Action, and the Media (WAM!). Aside from Jaclyn Friedman, founder and former executive director of WAM!, the authors of this document are academics from the fields of computational social science, anthropology, sociology, network science, and computer science. The academic authors conducted this analysis(More)
This paper contributes to a growing body of work that attempts to measure informal learning online by revisiting two of the most surprising findings from a 2012 study on skill progression in Scratch by Scaffidi and Chambers: users tend to share decreasingly code-heavy projects over time; and users' projects trend toward using a less diverse range of code(More)
This paper presents work in progress on "reader-sourcing," an approach to cooperative content creation through the reading behavior of crowds. We present the Passing On system, that reader-sources the creation and expansion of Wikipedia articles about women, aiming to support frame changes on women's representation and offer a counter-public for novice(More)
Managers regularly face a complex ethical dilemma over how to best govern online communities by evaluating the effectiveness of different social or technical strategies. What ethical considerations should guide researchers and managers when they employ causal research methods that make different community members bear different risks and benefits, under(More)