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Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) traditionally have been studied in plants and other organisms for their ability to detoxify chemically diverse herbicides and other toxic organic compounds. Anthocyanins are among the few endogenous substrates of plant GSTs that have been identified. The Bronze2 (Bz2) gene encodes a type III GST and performs the last(More)
To evaluate the effect of increased expression of genes involved in flower pigmentation, additional dihydroflavonol-4-reductase (DFR) or chalcone synthase (CHS) genes were transferred to petunia. In most transformants, the increased expression had no measurable effect on floral pigmentation. Surprisingly, however, in up to 25% of the transformants, a(More)
Posttranscriptional silencing of chalcone synthase (Chs) genes in petunia transformants occurs by introducing T-DNAs that contain a promoter-driven or promoterless Chs transgene. With the constructs we used, silencing occurs only by T-DNA loci which are composed of two or more T-DNA copies that are arranged as inverted repeats (IRs). Since we are interested(More)
Two distinct gene-silencing phenomena are observed in plants: transcriptional gene silencing (TGS), which involves decreased RNA synthesis because of promoter methylation, and posttranscriptional gene silencing (PTGS), which involves sequence-specific RNA degradation. PTGS is induced by deliberate [1-4] or fortuitous production (R.v.B., unpublished data) of(More)
We have analyzed the spatial and temporal activities of chalcone flavanone isomerase (chi) A and B gene promoters from petunia. To study the tandem promoter regulation of chiA, various chiA promoter fragments were fused with the beta-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene. Analysis of transgenic plants containing these chimeric genes provided definitive proof(More)
Twenty independent, petal-specific chalcone synthase (CHS) cDNA clones have been isolated from Petunia hybrida variety Violet 30 (V30). Sequence analysis shows that the largest of these clones contains the entire coding sequence. Using this clone in Southern blot analysis reveals the presence of multiple CHS gene copies in the genome of Petunia hybrida V30.(More)
Unstable anthocyanin3 (an3) alleles of petunia with insertions of the Activator/Dissociation-like transposon dTph1 fall into two classes that differ in their genetic behavior. Excision of the (single) dTph1 insertion from class 1 an3 alleles results in the formation of a footprint, similar to the "classical" mechanism observed for excisions of maize and(More)
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