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The petunia loci anthocyanin1 (an1), an2, an4, and an11 are required for the transcription of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes in floral organs. The an2 and an11 loci were recently cloned and shown to encode a MYB-domain transcriptional activator and a cytosolic WD40 protein, respectively. Here, we report the isolation of an1 by transposon tagging. an1(More)
The shape and color of flowers are important for plant reproduction because they attract pollinators such as insects and birds. Therefore, it is thought that alterations in these traits may result in the attraction of different pollinators, genetic isolation, and ultimately, (sympatric) speciation. Petunia integrifolia and P. axillaris bear flowers with(More)
Fruit ripening is characterized by dramatic changes in gene expression, enzymatic activities and metabolism. Although the process of ripening has been studied extensively, we still lack valuable information on how the numerous metabolic pathways are regulated and co-ordinated. In this paper we describe the characterization of FaMYB1, a ripening regulated(More)
The regulatory anthocyanin loci, an1, an2, an4 and an11 of Petunia hybrida, and r and c1 from Zea mays, control transcription of different sets of target genes. Both an2 and c1 encode a MYB-type protein. This study reports the isolation of a P. hybrida gene, jaf13, encoding a basic helix-loop-helix protein that, on the basis of sequence homology and(More)
In petunia flowers, the loci an1, an2, and an11 control the pigmentation of the flower by stimulating the transcription of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes. The an1 and an2 locus were recently cloned and encode a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) and MYB-domain transcriptional activator, respectively. Here, we report the isolation of the an11 locus by transposon(More)
Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) traditionally have been studied in plants and other organisms for their ability to detoxify chemically diverse herbicides and other toxic organic compounds. Anthocyanins are among the few endogenous substrates of plant GSTs that have been identified. The Bronze2 (Bz2) gene encodes a type III GST and performs the last(More)
A main determinant of inflorescence architecture is the site where floral meristems are initiated. We show that in wild-type Petunia bifurcation of the inflorescence meristem yields two meristems of approximately equal size. One terminates into a floral meristem and the other maintains its inflorescence identity. By random transposon mutagenesis we have(More)
The mechanisms that determine the relative positions of floral organs, and thereby their numbers, is a poorly understood aspect of flower development. We isolated a petunia mutant, floozy (fzy), in which the formation of floral organ primordia in the outermost three floral whorls and one of the two bracts at the base of the flower is blocked at an early(More)
To evaluate the effect of increased expression of genes involved in flower pigmentation, additional dihydroflavonol-4-reductase (DFR) or chalcone synthase (CHS) genes were transferred to petunia. In most transformants, the increased expression had no measurable effect on floral pigmentation. Surprisingly, however, in up to 25% of the transformants, a(More)
In this paper we report the isolation of cDNA clones encoding the flavonoid-biosynthetic enzyme chalcone flavanone isomerase (CHI) from Petunia hybrida. A nearly full size cDNA clone, isolated from a corolla-specific expression library, was characterized by sequence analysis. Using this CHI cDNA and the previously cloned flavonoid-specific chalcone synthase(More)