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Porins form aqueous channels that aid the diffusion of small hydrophilic molecules across the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria. The crystal structures of matrix porin and phosphoporin both reveal trimers of identical subunits, each subunit consisting of a 16-stranded anti-parallel beta-barrel containing a pore. A long loop inside the barrel(More)
Human cyclophilin A (CypA), a ubiquitous intracellular protein of 165 amino acids, is the major receptor for the cyclic undecapeptide immunosuppressant drug cyclosporin A (CsA), which prevents allograft rejection after transplant surgery and is efficacious in the field of autoimmune diseases. CsA prevents T-cell proliferation by blocking the(More)
Anthranilate synthase catalyzes the synthesis of anthranilate from chorismate and glutamine and is feedback-inhibited by tryptophan. The enzyme of the hyperthermophile Sulfolobus solfataricus has been crystallized in the absence of physiological ligands, and its three-dimensional structure has been determined at 2.5-A resolution with x-ray crystallography.(More)
Seeds of Canavalia ensiformis (jack bean) contain besides large amounts of canavalin and concanavalin A, a protein with a molecular mass of 33,800 which has been named concanavalin B. Although concanavalin B shares about 40% sequence identity with plant chitinases belonging to glycosyl hydrolase family 18, no chitinase activity could be detected for this(More)
The structure of the bifunctional, pyridoxal phosphate-dependent enzyme dialkylglycine decarboxylase was determined to 2.1-angstrom resolution. Model building suggests that a single cleavage site catalyzes both decarboxylation and transamination by maximizing stereoelectronic advantages and providing electrostatic and general base catalysis. The enzyme(More)
The conjoint substitution of three active-site residues in aspartate aminotransferase (AspAT) of Escherichia coli (Y225R/R292K/R386A) increases the ratio of L-aspartate beta-decarboxylase activity to transaminase activity >25 million-fold. This result was achieved by combining an arginine shift mutation (Y225R/R386A) with a conservative substitution of a(More)
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