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Porins form aqueous channels that aid the diffusion of small hydrophilic molecules across the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria. The crystal structures of matrix porin and phosphoporin both reveal trimers of identical subunits, each subunit consisting of a 16-stranded anti-parallel beta-barrel containing a pore. A long loop inside the barrel(More)
Human cyclophilin A (CypA), a ubiquitous intracellular protein of 165 amino acids, is the major receptor for the cyclic undecapeptide immunosuppressant drug cyclosporin A (CsA), which prevents allograft rejection after transplant surgery and is efficacious in the field of autoimmune diseases. CsA prevents T-cell proliferation by blocking the(More)
Anthranilate synthase catalyzes the synthesis of anthranilate from chorismate and glutamine and is feedback-inhibited by tryptophan. The enzyme of the hyperthermophile Sulfolobus solfataricus has been crystallized in the absence of physiological ligands, and its three-dimensional structure has been determined at 2.5-A resolution with x-ray crystallography.(More)
The structure of the bifunctional, pyridoxal phosphate-dependent enzyme dialkylglycine decarboxylase was determined to 2.1-angstrom resolution. Model building suggests that a single cleavage site catalyzes both decarboxylation and transamination by maximizing stereoelectronic advantages and providing electrostatic and general base catalysis. The enzyme(More)
Two refined structures, differing in alkali metal ion content, of the bifunctional, pyridoxal phosphate-dependent enzyme dialkylglycine decarboxylase (DGD) are presented in detail. The enzyme is an alpha 4 tetramer, built up as a dimer of dimers, with a subunit molecular mass of 46.5 kDa. The fold of DGD is similar to those of aspartate aminotransferase,(More)
Seeds of Canavalia ensiformis (jack bean) contain besides large amounts of canavalin and concanavalin A, a protein with a molecular mass of 33,800 which has been named concanavalin B. Although concanavalin B shares about 40% sequence identity with plant chitinases belonging to glycosyl hydrolase family 18, no chitinase activity could be detected for this(More)
The conjoint substitution of three active-site residues in aspartate aminotransferase (AspAT) of Escherichia coli (Y225R/R292K/R386A) increases the ratio of L-aspartate beta-decarboxylase activity to transaminase activity >25 million-fold. This result was achieved by combining an arginine shift mutation (Y225R/R386A) with a conservative substitution of a(More)
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