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Using an atomic force microscope, supported bilayers of saturated phosphatidylcholine (in the gel state) containing various amounts of gramicidin A (gA) were imaged in aqueous solutions and at room temperature. gA clusters were directly observed for the first time under these conditions. It was found that, at a lower gA concentration, gA aggregated into(More)
Cholera toxin B-oligomer was imaged by atomic force microscopy (AFM) on biologically relevant model membranes, such as 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine and egg yolk phosphatidylcholine at room temperature in solution at a resolution in the range of 1 to 2 nm. In addition, two-dimensional arrays were grown directly on these model(More)
Using a cationic lipid bilayer, we show that DNA can be reliably adsorbed to the bilayer surface for atomic force microscopy (AFM) in aqueous buffers at high resolution. The measured width of the dsDNA is close to 2 nm, and a periodic modulation on dsDNA is reproducibly detected by the AFM. The measured period is 3.4 +/- 0.4 nm, in excellent agreement with(More)
Using the atomic force microscope (AFM) in situ, we have demonstrated that acyl chain interdigitation can be induced reversibly by alcohol in supported unilamellar phospholipid bilayers. At alcohol concentrations considerably lower than the critical values determined by other experimental techniques, it was found that interdigitated domains can be induced(More)
Pertussis toxin, both complete and the B-oligomer, were imaged by atomic force microscopy (AFM), using specimens prepared by simple surface adsorption on mica without further manipulation. The spatial arrangement of the subunits of the B-oligomer was clearly resolved, representing the first protein quaternary structure obtained by AFM in situ. The results(More)
In order to understand the effect of different amounts of powder-activated carbon (PAC) injection and bio-solution (NOE-7F) addition on the removal efficiencies of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in a fly ash treatment plant with Waelz rotary kiln process, the PCDD/F concentrations in the stack flue gasses were measured and(More)
The Escherichia coli chaperonins, GroEL and GroES, as well as their complexes in the presence of a nonhydrolyzable nucleotide AMP-PNP, have been imaged with the atomic force microscope (AFM). We demonstrate that both GroEL and GroES that have been adsorbed to a mica surface can be resolved directly by the AFM in aqueous solution at room temperature.(More)
Using atomic force microscopy (AFM) in aqueous solution, we show that the surface structure of the oligomeric GroES can be obtained up to 10 angstroms resolution. The seven subunits of the heptamer were well resolved without image averaging. The overall dimension of the GroES heptamer was 8.4 +/- 0.4 nm in diameter and 3.0 +/- 0.3 nm high. However, the AFM(More)
This study set out to reduce polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emissions from the iron ore sintering process by optimizing its operation parameters obtained from the Taguchi experimental design. Four operating parameters, including the water content (Wc; range = 6.0-7.0 wt %), suction pressure (Ps; range = 1000-1400 mmH2O), bed height (Hb; range =(More)
This study is the first one using the Taguchi experimental design to identify the optimal operating condition for reducing polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/ Fs) formations during the iron ore sintering process. Four operating parameters, including the water content (Wc; range = 6.0-7.0 wt %), suction pressure (Ps; range = 1000-1400(More)