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We investigated antimicrobial drug resistance in ocular Chlamydia trachomatis 18 months after 4 biannual communitywide distributions of antimicrobial drugs in a region of Ethiopia where ocular strains of C. trachomatis are highly endemic. We found no significant differences in susceptibilities to azithromycin and doxycycline in 6 posttreatment and 4… (More)
OBJECTIVE The authors evaluated the use of conditional cash transfers as an HIV and sexually transmitted infection prevention strategy to incentivise safe sex. DESIGN An unblinded, individually randomised and controlled trial. SETTING 10 villages within the Kilombero/Ulanga districts of the Ifakara Health and Demographic Surveillance System in rural… (More)
BACKGROUND/AIM The World Health Organisation (WHO) hopes to achieve global elimination of trachoma, still the leading cause of preventable blindness worldwide, in part through mass antibiotic treatment. DNA-based nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) are currently used to evaluate the success of treatment programmes by measuring the prevalence of C… (More)
We traced the Chlamydia trachomatis L2b variant in Amsterdam and San Francisco. All recent lymphogranuloma venereum cases in Amsterdam were caused by the L2b variant. This variant was also present in the 1980s in San Francisco. Thus, the current "outbreak" is most likely a slowly evolving epidemic.
PURPOSE Although trachoma control programs frequently use the World Health Organization (WHO) simplified grading system for trachoma to monitor the clinical response after repeated mass azithromycin treatments, the programmatic relevance of this evaluation after multiple rounds of antibiotic treatments is unclear. METHODS Three rounds of annual mass… (More)
PURPOSE Trachoma remains the leading infectious cause of blindness worldwide. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends mass antibiotic distributions in its strategy to eliminate blinding trachoma. To determine the most effective antibiotic treatment strategy, it is essential to have a diagnostic test that can correctly measure the true status of… (More)
BACKGROUND An important component of the World Health Organization's comprehensive trachoma elimination strategy is the provision of repeated annual mass azithromycin distributions, which are directed at reducing the burden of ocular chlamydia. Knowledge of characteristics associated with infection after mass antibiotic treatments could allow trachoma… (More)