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The synaptic cleft may be represented as a very thin disk of extracellular fluid. It is possible that at high stimulation frequencies the interval between pulses would be insufficient for diffusion of Ca2+ from the periphery of the cleft to replace extracellular Ca2+ depleted at the center of the cleft as a result of activation of postsynaptic,(More)
In the body, cells encounter a complex milieu of signals, including topographical cues, in the form of the physical features of their surrounding environment. Imposed topography can affect cells on surfaces by promoting adhesion, spreading, alignment, morphological changes, and changes in gene expression. Neural response to topography is complex, and it(More)
Directed migration of Schwann cells (SC) is critical for development and repair of the peripheral nervous system. Understanding aspects of motility specific to SC, along with SC response to engineered biomaterials, may inform strategies to enhance nerve regeneration. Rat SC were cultured on laminin-coated microgrooved poly(dimethyl siloxane) platforms that(More)
A goal of neural tissue engineering is the development and evaluation of materials that guide neuronal growth and alignment. However, the methods available to quantitatively evaluate the response of neurons to guidance materials are limited and/or expensive, and may require manual tracing to be performed by the researcher. We have developed an open source,(More)
—This paper discusses nonlinear proportional-integral (PI) current control with anti-windup of reluctance synchronous machines (RSMs) for which the flux linkage maps are known. The nonlinear controller design is based on the tuning rule " Magnitude Optimum criterion " [1]. Due to the nonlinear flux linkage, the current dynamics of RSMs are highly nonlinear(More)
Understanding the cues that guide axons and how we can optimize these cues to achieve directed neuronal growth is imperative for neural tissue engineering. Cells in the local environment influence neurons with a rich combination of cues. This study deconstructs the complex mixture of guidance cues by working at the biomimetic interface--isolating the(More)
The path created by aligned Schwann cells (SCs) after nerve injury underlies peripheral nerve regeneration. We developed geometric bioinspired substrates to extract key information needed for axon guidance by deconstructing the topographical cues presented by SCs. We have previously reported materials that directly replicate SC topography with micro- and(More)
The liver is the most important site of drug and nutrient metabolism in the body, and we desire an accurate in vitro model that allows us to perform long term drug and metabolism studies. To this end of developing an assaying tool, I used an existing multi-well bioreactor that allows for formation of perfused, three dimensional tissue structures, and began(More)
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