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The administration of the dopamine antagonists, pimozide and alpha-flupenthixol, to rats reduced Pavlovian-instrumental transfer when a conditioned stimulus (CS) that had been paired with a noncontingent food reward was tested on instrumental performance. The administration of the antagonists during Pavlovian conditioning and/or testing abolished the(More)
1. We used single neuron recording techniques in two behaving monkeys to investigate the conditions in which dopamine neurons respond to primary rewarding or potentially rewarding stimuli. Animals received drops of liquid either outside behavioral tasks or as rewards during learning or established performance of an auditory reaction time task. 2. Three(More)
Midbrain dopamine systems are crucially involved in motivational processes underlying the learning and execution of goal-directed behaviour. Dopamine neurons in monkeys are uniformly activated by unpredicted appetitive stimuli such as food and liquid rewards and conditioned, reward-predicting stimuli. By contrast, fully predicted stimuli are ineffective,(More)
Schultz, Wolfram. Predictive reward signal of dopamine neurons. is called rewards, which elicit and reinforce approach behav-The effects of lesions, receptor ior. The functions of rewards were developed further during blocking, electrical self-stimulation, and drugs of abuse suggest the evolution of higher mammals to support more sophisti-that midbrain(More)
You might find this additional information useful... publishes original articles on the function of the nervous system. It is published 12 times a year (monthly) Schultz, Wolfram. Predictive reward signal of dopamine neurons. is called rewards, which elicit and reinforce approach behav-The effects of lesions, receptor ior. The functions of rewards were(More)
Torsion of the neck relative to the fixed head results in several reflexes involving the eyes, the neck and the body. One of these reflexes, the cervico-ocular reflex, has been described as having a small gain in the normal animal. However, when the body of a guinea pig is moved relative to the fixed head with a ramp-like velocity profile, saccades are(More)
Anatomical and electrophysiological data have shown that, in the guinea pig as well as in the cat, the nucleus prepositus hypoglossi gives rise to a disynaptic ascending projection to the superior colliculus via the peri-parabigeminal area in the mesencephalon. The functional role of this indirect pathway in the generation of eye movements has been studied(More)
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