Learn More
When caloric intake exceeds caloric expenditure, the positive caloric balance and storage of energy in adipose tissue often causes adipocyte hypertrophy and visceral adipose tissue accumulation. These pathogenic anatomic abnormalities may incite metabolic and immune responses that promote Type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension and dyslipidemia. These are(More)
The term "fat" may refer to lipids as well as the cells and tissue that store lipid (ie, adipocytes and adipose tissue). "Lipid" is derived from "lipos," which refers to animal fat or vegetable oil. Adiposity refers to body fat and is derived from "adipo," referring to fat. Adipocytes and adipose tissue store the greatest amount of body lipids, including(More)
American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists, The Obesity Society, and American Society for Metabolic & Bariatric Surgery Medical Guidelines for Clinical Practice are systematically developed statements to assist health-care professionals in medical decision making for specific clinical conditions. Most of the content herein is based on literature(More)
OBJECTIVE To review how bariatric surgery in obese patients may effectively treat adiposopathy (pathogenic adipose tissue or 'sick fat'), and to provide clinicians a rationale as to why bariatric surgery is a potential treatment option for overweight patients with type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and dyslipidaemia. METHODS A group of clinicians,(More)
Decompensated hyperglycemia is a frequent, severe complication of diabetes mellitus. Ketoacidosis usually occurs in patients with insulin-dependent (type I) diabetes, and insulin therapy is required to correct their hyperglycemic derangement. Hyperosmolar nonketotic state is more common in patients with non-insulin-dependent (type II) diabetes, who usually(More)
Excessive adipose tissue is potentially pathogenic due to its mass effects and through adverse metabolic/immune responses, which may lead to cardiovascular disease risk factors (eg, type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and possibly atherosclerosis itself). Positive caloric balance in genetically/environmentally susceptible patients may(More)
BACKGROUND Glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist treatment may improve endothelial function via direct and indirect mechanisms. We compared the acute and chronic effects of the GLP-1 receptor agonist exenatide vs. metformin on endothelial function in patients with obesity and pre-diabetes. METHODS We performed a randomized, open-label, clinical(More)
BACKGROUND Data suggest that carvedilol possesses antioxidant properties that might provide vascular protection. We sought to compare the effects of carvedilol and metoprolol tartrate on endothelial function and oxidative stress in a head-to-head trial. METHODS Thirty-four patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and hypertension were randomized to(More)