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Aldose reductase is an NADPH-dependent oxidoreductase that catalyzes the reduction of a broad range of aldehydes, including glucose. Since aldose reductase has been strongly implicated in the development of the chronic complications of diabetes mellitus, much effort has been devoted to understanding the structure and mechanism of this enzyme, and many(More)
Accumulation of intracellular sorbitol due to increased aldose reductase (ALR2) activity has been implicated in the development of various secondary complications of diabetes. In this study we show that curcumin inhibits ALR2 with an IC(50) of 10 microM in a non-competitive manner, but is a poor inhibitor of closely-related members of the aldo-keto(More)
This study was undertaken to compare the ability of two guanidine compounds (aminoguanidine and methylguanidine), with different in vitro effects on NO synthase activity and AGE formation, to inhibit diabetic vascular dysfunction developing early after the onset of diabetes. In rats with STZ-induced diabetes of 5-wk duration, regional vascular [125I]albumin(More)
Carbohydrates with high glycaemic index are proposed to promote the development of obesity, insulin resistance and fatty liver, but the mechanism by which this occurs remains unknown. High serum glucose concentrations are known to induce the polyol pathway and increase fructose generation in the liver. Here we show that this hepatic, endogenously produced(More)
RATIONALE Atherosclerotic lesion formation is associated with the accumulation of oxidized lipids. Products of lipid oxidation, particularly aldehydes, stimulate cytokine production and enhance monocyte adhesion; however, their contribution to atherosclerotic lesion formation remains unclear. OBJECTIVE To test the hypothesis that inhibition of aldehyde(More)
alpha-Crystallin, the major protein component of vertebrate lenses, forms a large complex comprised of two homologous subunits, alphaA- and alphaB-crystallin. It has the ability to suppress stress-induced protein aggregation in vitro, bind saturably to lens plasma membranes, and aid in light refraction through short-range ordering. Recently, a missense(More)
Kinetic and structural changes in recombinant human aldose reductase (AR) due to modification by S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) were investigated. Incubation of the enzyme with 10-50 microM GSNO led to a time- and concentration-dependent inactivation of the enzyme, with a second-order rate constant of 0.087 +/- 0.009 M-1 min-1. However, upon exhaustive(More)
Aldose reductase is inactivated by physiological disulfides such as GSSG and cystine. To study the mechanism of disulfide-induced enzyme inactivation, we examined the rate and extent of enzyme inactivation using wild-type human aldose reductase and mutants containing cysteine-to-serine substitutions at positions 80 (C80S), 298 (C298S), and 303 (C303S). The(More)
Activation of polyol pathway due to increased aldose reductase activity is one of the several mechanisms that have been implicated in the development of various secondary complications of diabetes. Though numerous synthetic aldose reductase inhibitors have been tested, these have not been very successful clinically. Therefore, a number of common plant/(More)
Nitric oxide (NO) donors sodium nitrosoprusside (SNP), S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP), and 3-morpholinosydnonemine (SIN-1) caused a time- and concentration-dependent loss of catalytic activity of recombinant human placental aldose reductase. Modification of the enzyme was prevented by NADPH and NADP and reversed partially by dithiothreitol (DTT) and(More)