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Carbohydrates with high glycaemic index are proposed to promote the development of obesity, insulin resistance and fatty liver, but the mechanism by which this occurs remains unknown. High serum glucose concentrations are known to induce the polyol pathway and increase fructose generation in the liver. Here we show that this hepatic, endogenously produced(More)
PURPOSE Activation of polyol pathway due to increased aldose reductase (ALR2) activity has been implicated in the development of diabetic complications including diabetic retinopathy (DR), a leading cause of blindness. However, the relationship between hyperglycemia-induced activation of polyol pathway in retina and DR is still uncertain. We investigated(More)
Accumulation of intracellular sorbitol due to increased aldose reductase (ALR2) activity has been implicated in the development of various secondary complications of diabetes. Thus, ALR2 inhibition could be an effective strategy in the prevention or delay of certain diabetic complications. Gentiana lutea grows naturally in the central and southern areas of(More)
PURPOSE Aldose reductase (AR) has been a drug target because of its involvement in the development of secondary complications of diabetes including cataract. Although numerous synthetic AR inhibitors (ARI) have been tested and shown to inhibit the enzyme, clinically synthetic ARIs have not been very successful. Therefore, evaluating natural sources for ARI(More)
PURPOSE Pharmacologic inhibition of aldose reductase (AR) previously has been studied with respect to diabetic retinopathy with mixed results. Since drugs can have off-target effects, we studied the effects of AR deletion on the development and molecular abnormalities that contribute to diabetic retinopathy. Since recent data suggests an important role for(More)
PURPOSE The antivascular endothelial growth factor agents ranibizumab and bevacizumab are used to treat ocular neovascular diseases. There have been recent reports of sustained elevation of intraocular pressure after use of either agent, which we hypothesize could be because of high-molecular-weight aggregates. METHODS Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay,(More)
Reduced quality of life and financial burden due to visual impairment and blindness begin to increase dramatically when individuals reach the age of 40. The major causes of age-related vision loss can be traced to changes to the structure and function of the lens, one of the tissues responsible for focusing light on the retina. Age-related nuclear(More)
PURPOSE Aldose reductase (AR) has been a drug target because of its involvement in the development of secondary complications of diabetes including cataract. We have previously reported that the aqueous extract of Emblica officinalis and its constituent tannoids inhibit AR in vitro and prevent hyperglycemia-induced lens opacification in organ culture. The(More)
PURPOSE Retinal microglia become activated in diabetes and produce pro-inflammatory molecules associated with changes in retinal vasculature and increased apoptosis of retinal neurons and glial cells. We sought to determine if the action of aldose reductase (AR), an enzyme linked to the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy, contributes to activation of(More)
PURPOSE To characterize lenses from transgenic mice designed to express mutant and wild-type alphaA-crystallin subunits. METHODS A series of transgenic mouse strains was created to express mutant (R116C) and wild-type human alphaA-crystallin in fiber cells of the lens. Dissected lenses were phenotypically scored for the presence and extent of opacities,(More)