We evaluate, theoretically and empirically, the power of a family of tests for initial-condition bias.
HF-1B/SP4:, a member of the Sp1 family of transcription factors, is expressed restrictively in the developing nervous system and most abundantly in adult hippocampus in mice. Here, we report the generation of hypomorphic Sp4 allele mice, in which the Sp4 deficiency can be rescued by the expression of Cre recombinase. Vacuolization was detected in the… (More)
Dvl1 is one of three murine Dishevelled genes widely expressed in embryonic development and in the adult central nervous system. Dishevelled proteins are a necessary component of the Wnt and planar cell polarity developmental signaling pathways. We reported previously that mice deficient in Dvl1 exhibited abnormal social interaction and sensorimotor gating.… (More)
Neuroleukin (NLK) is a multifunctional protein involved in neuronal growth and survival, cell motility and differentiation, and glucose metabolism. We report herein that hippocampal expression of NLK and its receptor gp78 is associated with maze learning in rats. First, mRNA levels of NLK and gp78 were significantly increased in hippocampi of male… (More)
Social interaction is a fundamental behavior in all animal species, but the developmental timing of the social neural circuit formation and the cellular and molecular mechanisms governing its formation are poorly understood. We generated a mouse model with mutations in two Disheveled genes, Dvl1 and Dvl3, that displays adult social and repetitive behavioral… (More)
We present a cross-cultural exploration of the interrelationships among six concepts: achievement (ie, cultural attainment), aggression, psychological distress, competition, interpersonal intensity (strength of passionate attachments), and social synergy (patterned behavior that simultaneously benefits both individual and society). Of interest is the… (More)