An optical four-fiber bidirectional line-switched ring is presented. Results from optical protection switching experiments show that restoration in <50 ms is possible. A self-healing, bandwidth efficient, and scalable optical transport network evolving from this architecture is possible.
A new approach for making process and device simulation tools easier to use is presented. Described is an integrated CAD system for process design in which users select applications rather than tools. CAD simulation methodologies for each application are stored in an applications database and supported by automatic execution modules in the system. A… (More)
A simple quasi-two dimensional dynamical model of Thermohaline circulation (THC) is developed, assuming that the mixing only occurs near western and eastern boundary layers. When the surface density is prescribed, the climatically important quantities, such as the strength of overturning and meridional heat transport, are related to the zonal integral over… (More)
A new circuit simulation model is presented for impact ionization generated MOSFET substrate current. The model uses four parameters to accurately model substrate current over a wide range of device dimensions and operating voltages, including operation in the linear region. The model is able to model substrate currents from both heavily doped and lightly… (More)