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Functional impairment and selective depletion of CD4+ T cells, the hallmark of AIDS, are at least partly caused by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) type 1 binding to the CD4 molecule and infecting CD4+ cells. It may, therefore, be of therapeutic value to target an antiviral agent to CD4+ cells to prevent infection and to inhibit HIV-1 production in(More)
In a randomised phase I trial of a recombinant vaccina virus vaccine expressing the gp160 envelope gene of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIVAC-1e) 35 healthy, HIV-seronegative males, 31 of whom had a history of smallpox immunisation and 4 of whom were vaccinia naive, were vaccinated and then boosted 8 weeks later with HIVAC-1e or standard NY strain(More)
Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) is a primate lentivirus related to human immunodeficiency viruses and is an etiologic agent for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-like diseases in macaques. To date, only inactivated whole virus vaccines have been shown to protect macaques against SIV infection. Protective immunity was elicited by recombinant(More)
Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is caused by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and is now recognized as a worldwide epidemic for which there is no cure or vaccine. Chimpanzees are the only other animals that can be infected by HIV, and therefore the chimpanzee-HIV model system is useful for testing potential HIV vaccines. However, with one(More)
Although it is widely accepted that T cells have a major role in specific tumour immunity, there is now much evidence that natural killer (NK) cells, which exist in many species and spontaneously lyse certain tumour cells in vitro, provide early resistance against tumour growth. Human NK-cell activity can be augmented in vitro by interferon and its(More)
It is proposed that cells cytotoxic for autologous or syngeneic tumour cells can be produced in vitro by sensitisation of lymphocytes to a pool of normal cells from 20 unrelated individuals. Restriction on molecules that can serve as cytotoxic determinants (C.D.), may explain why a random pool of cells from 20 people could present essentially all of the(More)
Lymphocytes sensitized in vitro to a pool of X-irradiated allogeneic normal lymphocytes from 20 individuals develop cytotoxic activity for autologous human lymphoblastoid cells (LCL). Whereas pool sensitized T lymphocytes lyse autologous LCL cells, they fail to lyse autologous B-enriched or T-enriched normal target cells nor autologous phytohemagglutinin(More)