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BACKGROUND Dietary isothiocyanates inhibit lung carcinogenesis in laboratory animals but human data are limited. Glutathione S-transferases M1 and T1 (GSTM1 and GSTT1) conjugate isothiocyanates leading to more rapid elimination. Common deletion polymorphisms of GSTM1 and GSTT1 abolish enzyme activity. We hypothesised that chemopreventive effects of(More)
We investigated the association between urinary tract infections (UTIs) and transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder in a population-based case-control study in Los Angeles covering 1586 cases and age-, gender-, and race-matched neighbourhood controls. A history of bladder infection was associated with a reduced risk of bladder cancer among women (odds(More)
Alcohol and tobacco consumption are closely correlated and published results on their association with breast cancer have not always allowed adequately for confounding between these exposures. Over 80% of the relevant information worldwide on alcohol and tobacco consumption and breast cancer were collated, checked and analysed centrally. Analyses included(More)
Aflatoxins have long been suspected to be human hepatic carcinogens but no direct study was feasible until assays to measure individual aflatoxin exposure became available. We have used assays for urinary aflatoxin B1, its metabolites AFP1 and AFM1, and DNA-adducts (AFB1-N7-Gua) to assess the relation between aflatoxin exposure and liver cancer, as part of(More)
BACKGROUND There is growing evidence that, when smoking habits are comparable, women incur a higher risk of lung cancer than men. Because smokers are also at risk for bladder cancer, we investigated possible sex differences in the susceptibility to bladder cancer among smokers. METHODS A population-based, case--control study was conducted in Los Angeles,(More)
Inclusion of phenacetin among 'proven' human carcinogens by the IARC in 1987, raised concerns about the carcinogenic potential of acetaminophen, its major metabolite. Acetaminophen has been implicated as a possible causal agent in the development of cancer of the renal pelvis. The bladder and renal pelvis, which derive from the same embryological structure,(More)
The relations were examined between colorectal cancer and cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption within the Singapore Chinese Health Study, a population-based, prospective cohort of 63 257 middle-aged and older Chinese men and women enrolled between 1993 and 1998, from whom baseline data on cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption were collected through(More)
This is the first study to investigate the associations of IGF-1, IGF-2 and IGFBP-3 concentrations with the risk of colorectal cancer in prospectively collected blood samples from an Oriental population. Between 1986 and 1989 serum samples were collected at baseline from 18 244 men, aged 45-65 years, without a history of cancer and living in Shanghai,(More)
We investigated the effects of individual fatty acids on breast cancer in a prospective study of 35,298 Singapore Chinese women aged 45-74 years, who were enrolled during April 1993 to December 1998 (The Singapore Chinese Health Study). At recruitment, each study subject was administered, in-person, a validated, semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire(More)
Five hundred thirty-four histologically confirmed incident cases of breast cancer in Chinese women of Shanghai and an equal number of age and sex-matched population controls were interviewed as part of an epidemiological study of breast cancer risk factors. Early age at menarche was positively associated with breast cancer risk whereas early age at first(More)