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Two measures of sensory ocular dominance were compared. Both involved dichoptic presentation of orthogonal gratings--a situation which results in binocular rivalry. The gratings were presently briefly in experiment 1 and continuously in experiment 2 and by the predominance of one grating over the other a quantitative estimation of ocular dominance was(More)
Animal studies show that the rate of recovery from experimentally induced refractive errors is related to the level of ametropia induced. The present study examined the rate of emmetropisation occurring in a sample of 22 human infants refracted by near retinoscopy during the first six months of life and then again between 12 and 17 months old. None of the(More)
PURPOSE To examine the accommodative accuracy and amplitude in children with Down syndrome. Accommodation is usually assumed to be good in children and is rarely measured. METHODS A dynamic retinoscopy technique was developed that allows rapid and reliable measures of accuracy and amplitude of accommodation in infants and children. RESULTS Use of the(More)
Asymmetrical optokinetic nystagmus (OKN) means that OKN has a lower gain (slow-phase eye velocity/stimulus velocity) for monocular temporalward than nasalward visual field motion. OKN tends to be asymmetric in amblyopia, leading to suggestions of a link between OKN asymmetry and binocularity in the literature. The present study measured OKN in 13 amblyopes(More)
The Cardiff acuity test was used in estimating the binocular and monocular visual acuity norms of 231 toddlers between 12 and 36 months. Mean binocular acuity increased from 4.5 to 1.2 min arc and monocular acuity from 4.5 to 1.4 min arc over the age range. Interocular acuity difference was not significant and for 99% of the children, the difference in(More)
PURPOSE To determine the effect of visual demand on the nystagmus waveform. Individuals with infantile nystagmus syndrome (INS) commonly report that making an effort to see can intensify their nystagmus and adversely affect vision. However, such an effect has never been confirmed experimentally. METHODS The eye movement behavior of 11 subjects with INS(More)
PURPOSE To investigate possible factors that may be implicated in the poor accommodative responses of individuals with Down syndrome. This article evaluates the effect of age, angular size of target, and cognitive factors on accommodation. METHODS Seventy-seven children with Down syndrome who are participating in an ongoing study of visual development(More)