Learn More
The incretin hormones, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), play an important role in glucose homeostasis in both health and diabetes. In mice, sucralose, an artificial sweetener, stimulates GLP-1 release via sweet taste receptors on enteroendocrine cells. We studied blood glucose, plasma levels of insulin,(More)
There is evidence that gastrointestinal function adapts in response to a high-fat (HF) diet. This study investigated the hypothesis that an HF diet modifies the acute effects of duodenal lipid on appetite, antropyloroduodenal pressures, plasma CCK and plasma glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) levels in humans. Twelve healthy men were studied twice in(More)
OBJECTIVE We evaluated whether a whey preload could slow gastric emptying, stimulate incretin hormones, and attenuate postprandial glycemia in type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Eight type 2 diabetic patients ingested 350 ml beef soup 30 min before a potato meal; 55 g whey was added to either the soup (whey preload) or potato (whey in meal) or(More)
There is evidence that CCK and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) mediate the effects of nutrients on appetite and gastrointestinal function and that their interaction may be synergistic. We hypothesized that intravenous CCK-8 and GLP-1 would have synergistic effects on appetite, energy intake, and antropyloroduodenal (APD) motility. Nine healthy males (age 22(More)
Oral glucose is a potent stimulant of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) secretion. The effect of oral fructose on GLP-1 secretion in humans is unknown. The aims of this study were to determine (i) whether oral fructose stimulates GLP-1 secretion and (ii) the comparative effects of oral glucose and fructose on appetite. On 3 separate days, 8 fasting healthy(More)
Enterally administered lipid modulates antropyloroduodenal motility, gut hormone release, appetite, and energy intake. We hypothesized that these effects would be dependent on both the load, and duration, of small intestinal exposure to lipid. Eleven healthy men were studied on four occasions in a double-blind, randomized, fashion. Antropyloroduodenal(More)
Gastric emptying is a major determinant of glycemia, gastrointestinal hormone release, and appetite. We determined the effects of different intraduodenal glucose loads on glycemia, insulinemia, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and cholecystokinin (CCK), antropyloroduodenal motility, and energy intake in(More)
Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) may play a role in regulating gastric emptying. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between gastric emptying of glucose and plasma concentrations of GLP-1. Gastric emptying of 75 g of glucose dissolved in 350 ml of water was measured by the use of scintigraphy in 12 normal volunteers. Venous blood samples(More)
OBJECTIVE To define the predictors of the rate of gastric emptying in patients with diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A total of 101 outpatients with diabetes (79 type 1 and 22 type 2) underwent measurements of gastric emptying of a solid/liquid meal (scintigraphy), upper gastrointestinal symptoms (questionnaire), glycemic control (blood glucose(More)