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OBJECTIVE We evaluated whether a whey preload could slow gastric emptying, stimulate incretin hormones, and attenuate postprandial glycemia in type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Eight type 2 diabetic patients ingested 350 ml beef soup 30 min before a potato meal; 55 g whey was added to either the soup (whey preload) or potato (whey in meal) or(More)
There is evidence that CCK and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) mediate the effects of nutrients on appetite and gastrointestinal function and that their interaction may be synergistic. We hypothesized that intravenous CCK-8 and GLP-1 would have synergistic effects on appetite, energy intake, and antropyloroduodenal (APD) motility. Nine healthy males (age 22(More)
Oral glucose is a potent stimulant of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) secretion. The effect of oral fructose on GLP-1 secretion in humans is unknown. The aims of this study were to determine (i) whether oral fructose stimulates GLP-1 secretion and (ii) the comparative effects of oral glucose and fructose on appetite. On 3 separate days, 8 fasting healthy(More)
Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) may play a role in regulating gastric emptying. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between gastric emptying of glucose and plasma concentrations of GLP-1. Gastric emptying of 75 g of glucose dissolved in 350 ml of water was measured by the use of scintigraphy in 12 normal volunteers. Venous blood samples(More)
It has been suggested that obesity is associated with a reduced glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) response to oral carbohydrate, but not fat. The latter may, however, be attributable to changes in gastric emptying. We have assessed plasma GLP-1 levels in response to these infusions in lean and obese subjects. Seven healthy lean (body mass index (BMI),(More)
BACKGROUND Cholecystokinin (CCK) and peptide YY (PYY) are released in response to intestinal nutrients and play an important physiological role in regulation of gastric emptying (GE). Plasma CCK and PYY concentrations are elevated in critically ill patients, particularly in those with a history of feed intolerance. This study aimed to evaluate the(More)
Human aging is associated with a reduction in appetite and food intake. Increased activity of the satiety hormone, cholecystokinin (CCK), may be partly responsible. This study aimed to determine whether an increase in fat and energy intake modifies the suppressive effects of CCK-8 on appetite and energy intake. Fourteen healthy older adults completed three(More)
CONTEXT The "incretin" hormones, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), account for some 60% of the stimulation of insulin by oral glucose, but the determinants of their secretion from the small intestine are poorly understood. Cells which release GIP (K cells) are localized to the proximal small intestine,(More)
INTRODUCTION Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) attenuates the glycaemic response to small intestinal nutrient infusion in stress-induced hyperglycaemia and reduces fasting glucose concentrations in critically ill patients with type-2 diabetes. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of acute administration of GLP-1 on the glycaemic response to(More)