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To assess risk factors for development of candidal blood stream infections (CBSIs), a prospective cohort study was performed at 6 sites that involved all patients admitted to the surgical intensive care unit (SICU) for >48 h over a 2-year period. Among 4276 such patients, 42 CBSIs occurred (9.82 CBSIs per 1000 admissions). The overall incidence was 0.98(More)
PURPOSE The incidence of treated end-stage renal disease has increased progressively in the United States over the past several decades. It has been suggested that kidney stones may be a contributing factor for a small percentage of these patients. METHODS We conducted a case-control study utilizing 548 hospital cases and 514 age, race and gender-matched(More)
Many diseases and injuries can impair joint mobility. Normal reference values are needed to determine extent of impairment to assess and monitor joint motion. There is very little published data describing normal joint range of motion (ROM) for healthy men and women across a wide span of ages. We enrolled male and female subjects aged between 2 and 69 years(More)
BACKGROUND Effective ways to prevent arthropathy in severe hemophilia are unknown. METHODS We randomly assigned young boys with severe hemophilia A to regular infusions of recombinant factor VIII (prophylaxis) or to an enhanced episodic infusion schedule of at least three doses totaling a minimum of 80 IU of factor VIII per kilogram of body weight at the(More)
Patients who die within the first 90 days after beginning dialysis are not included in mortality rates and may be absent from incidence counts. To identify factors associated with mortality within 3 months of the initiation of dialysis for ESRD and to estimate the impact of early deaths on ESRD incidence and mortality rates, this study investigated 15,245(More)
Poverty is associated with increased risk of ESRD, but its contribution to observed racial differences in disease incidence is not well-defined. To explore the contribution of neighborhood poverty to racial disparity in ESRD incidence, we analyzed a combination of US Census and ESRD Network 6 data comprising 34,767 patients that initiated dialysis in(More)
Human immunodeficiency virus-associated nephropathy (HIVAN) develops more often in HIV-infected blacks than whites. Blacks also show marked familial clustering of other causes of end-stage renal disease (ESRD), particularly diabetes mellitus-, hypertension-, and systemic lupus erythematosus-associated ESRD. We compared the family history of ESRD in 201(More)
The Modification of Diet in Renal Disease Study is randomized, multicenter, clinical trial designed to determine the effects of three levels of dietary control of protein and phosphorus and two levels of blood pressure control on the rate of decline of kidney function among persons with chronic renal disease. Study participants were assigned to one of two(More)
To determine whether geographic variability in rates of kidney stones in the United States was attributable to differences in personal and environmental exposures, the authors examined cross-sectional data that included information on self-reported, physician-diagnosed kidney stones collected from 1,167,009 men and women, aged > or = 30 years, recruited(More)
Although persons with hemophilia are known to be at increased risk of death, no studies have examined the source of medical care and other personal characteristics for associations with mortality. To determine death rates and to identify causes of death and predictors of mortality, we studied a cohort comprised of all hemophilic males identified by a(More)