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It has been suggested that the pathophysiology of panic disorder (PD) may involve abnormalities in several brain structures, including the amygdala. To date, however, no study has used quantitative structural neuroimaging techniques to examine amygdalar anatomy in this disorder. Volumetric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies of the amygdalas,(More)
OBJECTIVE The authors examined possible cerebral gray matter abnormalities in patients with panic disorder. METHOD Gray matter concentration in 18 panic disorder outpatients and 18 healthy subjects was compared by using a voxel-based morphometry approach. RESULTS Gray matter density of the left parahippocampal gyrus was significantly lower in patients(More)
Two limiting factors of dopamine activity are the catechol-o-methyltransferase (COMT) and the dopamine transporter (DAT), which terminate dopamine activity by degradation and uptake, respectively. Genetic variants of COMT and DAT have been related to the enzymatic activity and protein availability, respectively. The Met allele of the COMT Val108/158 Met(More)
OBJECTIVE Caffeine and glucose can have beneficial effects on cognitive performance. However, neural basis of these effects remain unknown. Our objective was to evaluate the effects of caffeine and glucose on sustained attention, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). METHODS Forty young right-handed, healthy, low caffeine-consuming subjects(More)
The spatiotemporal dynamics of the cerebral network involved in novelty processing was studied by means of scalp current density (SCD) analysis of the novelty P3 (nP3) event-related brain potential (ERP). ERPs were recorded from 30 scalp electrodes at the occurrence of novel unpredictable environmental sounds during the performance of a visual(More)
OBJECTIVE To study the effects of consuming caffeine and glucose, alone and combined, on cognitive performance. METHODS Seventy-two healthy subjects (36 women; age range 18-25) were tested early in the morning, having fasted overnight. Using a double-blind, randomised design, subjects received one of the following beverages: water (150 ml); water plus 75(More)
We investigated residual brain damage in subjects who suffered severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) in childhood, and its relationship with declarative memory impairment. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) volumetric data and memory performance were compared between 16 adolescents with antecedents of severe TBI and 16 matched normal controls. Volumes of grey(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Previous studies have shown the hippocampus and basal ganglia to be highly sensitive to hypoxic-ischemic insult. The authors' aim was to evaluate the long-term effects of perinatal asphyxia (PA) on the hippocampus and caudate nucleus in a group of participants born at term and who met the criteria for hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy(More)
We studied the relationship among dopamine receptor D2 (DRD2) Taq I genetic polymorphism, caudate nucleus volumetry as measured using MRI and neuropsychological functions in 49 memory impaired older people. Compared with DRD2 A1 carriers, subjects homozygous for the DRD2 A2 allele performed poorer in a measure of general cognitive functioning (MMSE) and in(More)
Although previous studies have shown that the human attention system is partially affected by chlorpheniramine, the effects of chlorpheniramine on human auditory selective attention have not yet been explored. This study examines the effects of a single dose of 4 mg of dextro-chlorpheniramine on human auditory selective attention by means of the evaluation(More)