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Anabaena, a filamentous cyanobacterium, is of developmental interest because, when deprived of fixed nitrogen, it shows patterned differentiation of N2-fixing cells called heterocysts. To help elucidate its early responses to a decrease in nitrogen, we used a derivative of transposon Tn5 to generate transcriptional fusions of promoterless bacterial(More)
Mutants of Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 that are incapable of sustained growth with air as the sole source of nitrogen were generated by using Tn5-derived transposons. Nitrogenase was expressed only in mutants that showed obvious morphological signs of heterocyst differentiation. Even under rigorously anaerobic conditions, nitrogenase was not synthesized in(More)
The exopolysaccharides (EPS) of two unicellular strains of cyanobacteria Synechocystis PCC 6803 and 6714, formed labile, radial structures, uniformly distributed on the cell surface, and stainable by specific dyes for acidic polysaccharides. The two strains produced EPS at similar rates, which depended, along with the duration of the producing phase, on the(More)
The diversity of the prokaryotes that have been studied, combined with the many different effects of low temperature, has led to an extensive literature concerning cold stress responses in mesophilic bacteria. The aim of this review is to discuss the effects of cold on the behavior of bacteria. The following three responses will be described: (i)(More)
Growth at low positive temperatures and induced phenotypic resistance to extreme cold temperature (freezing/thawing cycles) of Enterococcus faecalis were investigated. The effect of low temperatures on the specific growth rates was studied; use of Arrhenius profile and Ratkovsky 'square-root' model allowed determination of the 'temperature characteristic'(More)
Salt-induced genes in the cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 were identified by use of a Tn5-based transposon bearing luxAB as a reporter. The genomic sequence adjacent to one site of insertion of the transposon was identical in part to the sequence of the lti2 gene, which was previously identified in a differential screen for cold-induced(More)
This study was conducted to investigate the ability of cryoprotective chemicals to induce phenotypic cryoadaptation in Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus CIP 101027T. Tolerance to negative temperature stress (freezing at -20 degrees C and thawing at 37 degrees C) was induced by pretreatment with Me(2)SO, glycerol, lactose, sucrose, and trehalose.(More)
Food industry tends towards the use of controlled microorganisms in order to improve its technologies including frozen starter production. The fungus Geotrichum candidum, which is currently found in various environments, is widely used as ripening agent in some specific cheese making process. In order to optimize the cryopreservation of this microorganism,(More)
Two independent isolates of the gut commensal Lactobacillus johnsonii were sequenced. These isolates belonged to the same clonal lineage and differed mainly by a 40.8-kb prophage, LJ771, belonging to the Sfi11 phage lineage. LJ771 shares close DNA sequence identity with Lactobacillus gasseri prophages. LJ771 coexists as an integrated prophage and excised(More)
Work with pathogens like Vibrio cholerae has shown major differences between genes expressed in bacteria grown in vitro and in vivo. To explore this subject for commensals, we investigated the transcription of the Lactobacillus johnsonii NCC533 genome during in vitro and in vivo growth using the microarray technology. During broth growth, 537, 626, and 277(More)