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Two phases may be recognized in the development of congenital hydrocephalus in the hyh mutant mouse. During embryonic life the detachment of the ventral ependyma is followed by a moderate hydrocephalus. During the first postnatal week the cerebral aqueduct becomes obliterated and a severe hydrocephalus develops. The aim of the present investigation was to(More)
Hydrocephalic hyh mice are born with moderate hydrocephalus and a normal cerebral aqueduct. At about the fifth postnatal day the aqueduct becomes obliterated and severe hydrocephalus develops. The aim of the present investigation was to investigate the mechanism of this hydrocephalus, probably starting during fetal life when the cerebral aqueduct is still(More)
By gently scraping off the surface of the lateral ventricles of adult bovine brains, we obtained sheets containing the ependymal layer and some attached sub-ependymal cells. Explants were cultured in serum-free medium or in two media enriched with 20% fetal calf serum or 20% adult bovine cerebrospinal fluid, and processed for different time intervals from 4(More)
The neural control of the subcommissural organ (SCO) has been partially characterized. The best known input is an important serotonergic innervation in the SCO of several mammals. In the rat, this innervation comes from raphe nuclei and appears to exert an inhibitory effect on the SCO activity. A GABAergic innervation has also been shown in the SCO of the(More)
The subcommissural organ is an ependymal gland located at the entrance of the cerebral aqueduct. It secretes glycoproteins into the cerebrospinal fluid, where they aggregate to form Reissner's fiber. This fiber grows along the aqueduct, fourth ventricle, and central canal. There is evidence that the subcommissural organ is involved in the pathogenesis of(More)
Stenosis of the cerebral aqueduct seems to be a key event for the development of congenital hydrocephalus. The causes of such a stenosis are not well known. Overholser et al. in 1954 (Anat Rec 120:917-933) proposed the hypothesis that a dysfunction of the subcommissural organ (SCO) leads to aqueductal stenosis and congenital hydrocephalus. The SCO is a(More)
The subcommissural organ (SCO) is a brain gland secreting glycoproteins into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), where they aggregate forming the Reissner's fiber (RF). By the continuous addition of newly released glycoproteins, RF grows along the cerebral aqueduct, fourth ventricle, and central canal of the spinal cord. At the filum, RF-glycoproteins escape(More)
In the snake, Natrix maura, and the turtle, Mauremys caspica, the basal processes of the ependymal cells of the subcommissural organ project toward the local blood vessels and the leptomeninges. These processes and their endings were studied using aldehyde-fuchsin (AF), periodic-acid Schiff (PAS), periodic-acid silver-methenamine (PA-SM), concanavalin A(More)
The ependymal cells of the subcommissural organ (SCO) of the snake Natrix maura display long basal processes which terminate either on blood vessels or on the leptomeninges. The cell body and the basal processes contain a secretory material detectable immunocytochemically at the light-microscopic level using an antibody raised against bovine Reissner's(More)
Previous studies have shown the existence of proliferating cells in explants from bovine (Bos Taurus) lateral ventricle walls that were maintained for several days in vitro in the absence of serum and growth factors. In this study we have characterized the nature of new cells and have assessed whether the insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) receptor(More)