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In the unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-lesioned rat model of Parkinson's disease, controversy exists concerning the use of apomorphine- or D-amphetamine-induced rotations as reliable indicators of nigrostriatal dopamine depletion. Our objective was to evaluate which, if either, drug-induced behavior is more predictive of the extent of nigrostriatal(More)
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) promotes the survival of dopaminergic neurons in primary cultures and protects these neurons from the neurotoxic effects of 6-hydroxydopamine. The protective mechanism of BDNF on neurotoxicity was evaluated using CATH.a cells, a clonal catecholaminergic cell line derived from the central nervous system. Dopamine(More)
Changes in the tissue levels of 3-methoxytyramine (3-MT), 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), homovanillic acid (HVA), and dopamine in the frontal cortex, hypothalamus, nucleus accumbens, and striatum were evaluated after 0.5-4 h of footshock (2 mA, for 3 s every 30 +/- 5 s) in Fischer rats. 3-MT, DOPAC, and HVA levels in the four brain areas peaked at(More)
Amphetamine, 10(-7) M or greater, evoked the release of [3H]dopamine ([3H]DA) and inhibited subsequent K+-evoked [3H]DA release from striatal synaptosomes superfused at a flow rate (1 ml/min) that prevented reuptake. Amphetamine inhibited the K+-evoked release of [3H]DA to a lesser extent in striatal slices or in synaptosomes superfused at a flow rate (0.35(More)
The intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of apomorphine or d-amphetamine significantly increased locomotor activity in Sprague-Dawley rats. Prior administration of the cannabinoid receptor antagonist, SR 141716A, significantly enhanced the stimulant effect of both d-amphetamine and apomorphine in a dose-dependent manner. Administration of SR 141716A alone had(More)
Tyrosine hydroxylase activity was measured in the brain of rats treated chronically with saline or cocaine (10 mg/kg, 2 x day, for 7 days). Tyrosine hydroxylase activity was significantly increased in the ventral tegmental area 1, 6 and 12 weeks after the last treatment with cocaine. The increase in tyrosine hydroxylase activity at 6 weeks after the last(More)
Tyrosine hydroxylase is considered to be the rate-limiting enzyme in the synthesis of catecholamines in both the central and peripheral nervous system. Increased or decreased neuronal activity, stress, lesions, drug effects, endocrinological manipulations and experimental models of hypertension are associated with alterations in tyrosine hydroxylase(More)
A single application of electroconvulsive shock produced a rapid but short-lasting increase in tyrosine hydroxylase activity above control values in the rat adrenal medulla and striatum. After repeated electroconvulsive shock treatment (once per day for 7 days), tyrosine hydroxylase activity increased significantly in the locus ceruleus, nucleus of the(More)
Thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) had been reported to increase locomotor activity in rats and mice. In an attempt to localize this phenomenon, TRH (1 microgram, bilateral) was injected into the caudate nucleus, septum and hypothalamus of rats. Locomotor activity increased after injection of TRH into the hypothalamus, but not into the other two sites.(More)