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Sixteen patients with a definitive diagnosis of multiple sclerosis (MS) and an equal number of matched controls were administered tests of memory and information processing speed. Results indicated a significant long-term verbal memory impairment in patients with MS, with spared short-term memory and memory scanning. Speed of information processing was(More)
Some patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) demonstrate impaired memory. A group of 16 patients with MS who were mildly to moderately affected (Kurtzke Expanded Disability Status Scale Score = 3.8) were studied, and they were compared with a matched control group on tests of "working memory." The working memory system was explored by evaluating the amount of(More)
The pharmacokinetic parameters of amikacin were determined in a population of 20 adults and 36 pediatric patients admitted into an intensive care unit. Amikacin was administered by repeated intravenous infusion over 0.5 h (600 to 1,350 mg for adults; 70 to 1,500 mg for children). The number of administrations ranged from 2 to 17, and the number of samples(More)
1. Discrete, transient depolarization (discrete waves) of the ventral photoreceptor of the horseshoe crab, Limulus, occur spontaneously in the dark adapted photoreceptor and are also evoked by light. They form the basic events which comprise the receptor potential. A brief, low energy flash of light evokes variable numbers of discrete waves which have(More)
Phagocytosis and degradation of photoreceptor outer segments (POS) by retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is fundamental to vision. Autophagy is also responsible for bulk degradation of cellular components, but its role in POS degradation is not well understood. We report that the morning burst of RPE phagocytosis coincided with the enzymatic conversion of(More)
NOD2 receptor and the cytosolic protein kinase RIPK2 regulate NF-κB and MAP kinase signaling during bacterial infections, but the role of this immune axis during viral infections has not been addressed. We demonstrate that Nod2(-/-) and Ripk2(-/-) mice are hypersusceptible to infection with influenza A virus. Ripk2(-/-) cells exhibited defective autophagy(More)
The importance of autophagy in the generation of memory CD8(+) T cells in vivo is not well defined. We report here that autophagy was dynamically regulated in virus-specific CD8(+) T cells during acute infection of mice with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus. In contrast to the current paradigm, autophagy decreased in activated proliferating effector(More)
Natural killer (NK) cells play an essential role in innate immune control of poxviral infections in vivo. However, the mechanism(s) underlying NK cell activation and function in response to poxviruses remains poorly understood. In a mouse model of infection with vaccinia virus (VV), the most studied member of the poxvirus family, we identified that the(More)
Phagocytic cells of the immune system must constantly survey for, recognize, and efficiently clear the billions of cellular corpses that arise as a result of development, stress, infection, or normal homeostasis. This process, termed efferocytosis, is critical for the prevention of autoimmune and inflammatory disorders, and persistence of dead cells in(More)