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The hypothesis that macrophages contain an autocrine circuit based on melanocortin [ACTH and alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH)] peptides has major implications for neuroimmunomodulation research and inflammation therapy. To test this hypothesis, cells of the THP-1 human monocyte/macrophage line were stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in(More)
Inflammatory processes contribute to neurodegenerative disease, stroke, encephalitis, and other central nervous system (CNS) disorders. Activated microglia are a source of cytokines and other inflammatory agents within the CNS and it is therefore important to control glial function in order to preserve neural cells. Melanocortin peptides are(More)
Sodium valproate (VPA) is frequently used to treat epilepsy and convulsive disorders. Several reports have indicated that anti-epileptic drugs (AED) affect the immune system, but the mechanism has not been clear. We examined whether the commonly used AEDs, diazepam (DZP), carbamazepine (CBZ), phenobarbital (PB), phenytoin (PHT), and VPA, can inhibit(More)
alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) is an endogenous neuroimmunomodulatory peptide that inhibits fever and all major forms of experimental inflammation. In humans, concentrations of alpha-MSH are increased at sites of inflammation, and in plasma in inflammatory disorders and after infection of endotoxin. The effects of this 'anti-cytokine'(More)
The presence of the ancient anti-inflammatory peptide alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone [alpha-MSH (1-13), SYSMEHFRWGKPV] in barrier organs such as gut and skin suggests a role in the nonspecific (innate) host defense. alpha-MSH and and its carboxy-terminal tripeptide (11-13, KPV) were determined to have antimicrobial influences against two major and(More)
alpha-Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) is a potent inhibitory agent in all major forms of inflammation. To identify a potential mechanism of antiinflammatory action of alpha-MSH, we tested its effects on production of nitric oxide (NO), believed to be a mediator common to all forms of inflammation. We measured NO and alpha-MSH production in RAW(More)
alpha-Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH), a tridecapeptide derived from pro-opiomelanocortin, has potent antiinflammatory activity in laboratory animals. alpha-MSH inhibits nitric oxide production by murine macrophages, an influence believed to reflect activation of an autocrine circuit in these cells, one that is based on production and release of(More)
With the rise in the field of neuroimmunomodulation research, there is increased recognition of the influence of the nervous system and neuropeptides in peripheral disease. The neuropeptide alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) is a neuroimmunomodulatory agent that modulates production of proinflammatory cytokines and inhibits peripheral(More)
Over the past two decades, research in animal models has indicated that alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) has potent anti-inflammatory properties. Furthermore, recent data show that the peptide has antimicrobial effects and probably contributes to innate immunity. alpha-MSH, which is produced by many extrapituitary human cells, should no(More)
PURPOSE Ketamine reduces endotoxin-induced production of proinflammatory cytokines, including tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF), in several types of inflammatory cells, including monocytes and macrophages. Transcription of the genes that encode production of these proinflammatory cytokines is regulated by nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB). Cytoplasmic B(More)