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Although murine X-linked muscular dystrophy (mdx) and Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) are genetically homologous and both characterized by a complete absence of dystrophin, the limb muscles of adult mdx mice suffer neither the detectable weakness nor the progressive degeneration that are features of DMD. Here we show that the mdx mouse diaphragm exhibits(More)
The control of c-ski transgene expression and muscle hypertrophy have been investigated in transgenic mice. In adult animals, the level of transgene expression is linked to the specialized phenotype of individual muscles, high levels occur in fast muscles and significantly lower levels in muscles with high metabolic activity (diaphragm, soleus). These(More)
There are two pairs of muscles in each abdominal segment of the crab; one pair of flexors and one pair of extensors. In the early larval stages the muscles have short sarcomeres--a property of fast fibers--and high thin to thick filament ratios--a property of slow fibers. In the adult the abdominal muscles are intermediate and slow, since they have fibers(More)
We have examined the innervation patterns of the two excitor axons to the closer muscle in the dimorphic (snapper and pincer) claws of Californian snapping shrimp (Alpheus californiensis). In both claws the fast-closer excitor (FCE) axon supplies all of the closer muscle fibers. The slow-closer excitor (SCE) axon, however, makes functional connections only(More)
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