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During the past decade, electrophysiological approaches have greatly improved understanding of the involvement of the basal ganglia in motor behaviour. This review reports that the basal ganglia contribute to the initiation of movement by arousing executive motor centres via a disinhibitory mechanism. We propose that the basal ganglia output is used as a(More)
1. In vivo extracellular and intracellular recordings were performed from thalamocortical (TC) neurones in a genetic model of absence epilepsy (genetic absence epilepsy rats from Strasbourg) during spontaneous spike and wave discharges (SWDs). 2. Extracellularly recorded single units (n = 14) fired either a single action potential or a high frequency burst(More)
The functions of the basal ganglia are achieved through excitation of striatal output neurons (SONs) by converging cortical glutamergic afferents. We assessed the relationship between different patterns of activity in cortico-striatal (C-S) cells and the electrical behavior of SONs in vivo. Intracellular activities of rat C-S neurons in the orofacial motor(More)
The subthalamic nucleus (STN), a major component of the basal ganglia, exerts an excitatory influence on the output structures of this system i.e., the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNR) and the internal segment of the globus pallidus. High-frequency stimulation of the STN is a method currently used to treat parkinsonian symptoms. The aim of the present(More)
Precise identification of neuronal populations is a major challenge in neuroscience. In the striatum, more than 95% of neurons are GABAergic medium-sized spiny neurons (MSNs), which form two intermingled populations distinguished by their projections and protein content. Those expressing dopamine D(1)-receptors (D1Rs) project preferentially to the(More)
In Ketamine-anaesthetized rats the nigral efferents to the ipsilateral striatum, to both VL/VM thalamic nuclei and to both superior colliculi were studied. Nigral output neurons were antidromically activated from these target nuclei and characterized by their spontaneous activity and cellular localization within the substantia nigra. Neurons in the pars(More)
This study reports the first intracellular recordings obtained during spontaneous, genetically determined spike and wave discharges (SWDs) in nucleus reticularis thalami (NRT) neurons from the genetic absence epilepsy rats from Strasbourg (GAERS), a model that closely reproduces the typical features of childhood absence seizures. A SWD started with a large(More)
Cortical afferents to the basal ganglia, and in particular the corticostriatal projections, are critical in the expression of basal ganglia function in health and disease. The corticostriatal projections are topographically organized but also partially overlap and interdigitate. To determine whether projections from distinct cortical areas converge at the(More)
Cortical and thalamic neurones play a major role in the generation/expression of spike and wave discharges (SWDs), the main electroencephalographic (EEG) feature of absence seizures. The detailed mechanisms leading to this paroxysmal EEG activity, however, are still poorly understood. We have now made in vivo intracellular recordings from layer V cortical(More)
Striatal medium-sized spiny neurons (MSNs) integrate and convey information from the cerebral cortex to the output nuclei of the basal ganglia. Intracellular recordings from anesthetized animals show that MSNs undergo spontaneous transitions between hyperpolarized and depolarized states. State transitions, regarded as necessary for eliciting action(More)