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The structure and function of mitochondrial respiratory-chain enzyme proteins were studied postmortem in the substantia nigra of nine patients with Parkinson's disease and nine matched controls. Total protein and mitochondrial mass were similar in the two groups. NADH-ubiquinone reductase (Complex I) and NADH cytochrome c reductase activities were(More)
Mitochondrial dysfunction and perturbed degradation of proteins have been implicated in Parkinson's disease (PD) pathogenesis. Mutations in the Parkin and PINK1 genes are a cause of familial PD. PINK1 is a putative kinase associated with mitochondria, and loss of PINK1 expression leads to mitochondrial dysfunction, which increases with time. Parkin is(More)
Analysis of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in muscle and blood from 72 patients with mitochondrial myopathy showed that 30 had major deletions of a variable proportion of muscle mtDNA. All of these 30 patients presented with progressive external ophthalmoplegia and limb weakness, and 8 had the additional features of the Kearns-Sayre syndrome. Of the 42 patients(More)
OBJECTIVE Mutations in the glucocerebrosidase gene (GBA) represent a significant risk factor for developing Parkinson disease (PD). We investigated the enzymatic activity of glucocerebrosidase (GCase) in PD brains carrying heterozygote GBA mutations (PD+GBA) and sporadic PD brains. METHODS GCase activity was measured using a fluorescent assay in(More)
1-Methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) is thought to produce parkinsonism in humans and other primates through its inhibition of complex I. The recent discovery of mitochondrial complex I deficiency in the substantia nigra of patients with Parkinson's disease has provided a remarkable link between the idiopathic disease and the action of the(More)
Alpha-synuclein aggregation plays a central role in Parkinson's disease pathology. Direct transmission of alpha-synuclein from pathologically affected to healthy unaffected neurons may be important in the anatomical spread of the disease through the nervous system. We have demonstrated that exosomes released from alpha-synuclein over-expressing SH-SY5Y(More)
Incubation of rat skeletal muscle mitochondria with the nitric oxide generator, S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) reversibly inhibited oxygen utilisation with all substrates tested. The visible absorption spectra of the inhibited mitochondria showed that cytochromes c+c1, b and a+a3 were reduced, indicating a block at the distal end of the respiratory chain.(More)
Brain tissue from normal individuals with incidental Lewy bodies and cell loss in pigmented substantia nigra neurons (asymptomatic Parkinson's disease) and age-matched control subjects without nigral Lewy bodies was examined biochemically. There was no difference in dopamine levels or dopamine turnover in the caudate and putamen of individuals with(More)
The recent discovery of mitochondrial complex I deficiency in the substantia nigra of patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease has provided new understanding into the possible mechanisms that may underlie this neurodegenerative disorder. The biochemical defect is identical to that induced in humans, primates and mice exposed to the neurotoxin(More)