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A nomenclature is described for restriction endonucleases, DNA methyltransferases, homing endonucleases and related genes and gene products. It provides explicit categories for the many different Type II enzymes now identified and provides a system for naming the putative genes found by sequence analysis of microbial genomes.
Helicobacter pylori is a common human pathogen infecting about 30% of children and 60% of adults worldwide and is responsible for diseases such as gastritis, peptic ulcer and gastric cancer. Treatment against H. pylori is based on the use of antibiotics, but therapy failure can be higher than 20% and is essentially due to an increase in the prevalence of(More)
Helicobacter pylori is a Gram-negative microaerophilic bacterium that has colonized the human gastric mucosa. This infection is very common and affects more than half of the human population. The prevalence is however unbalanced between rural developing areas (more than 80%) and urban developed areas (less than 40%). H. pylori is responsible for several(More)
The genome sequences of three Helicobacter pylori strains revealed an abundant number of putative restriction and modification (R-M) systems within a small genome (1.60 to 1.67 Mb). Each R-M system includes an endonuclease that cleaves a specific DNA sequence and a DNA methyltransferase that methylates either adenosine or cytosine within the same DNA(More)
AIMS To understand whether the variability found in the proteome of Helicobacter pylori relates to the genomic methylation, virulence and associated gastric disease. METHODS AND RESULTS We applied the Minimum-Common-Restriction-Modification (MCRM) algorithm to genomic methylation data of 30 Portuguese H. pylori strains, obtained by genome sensitivity to(More)
Helicobacter pylori colonizes the human stomach and is associated with gastritis, peptic ulcer, and gastric cancer. This ubiquitous association between H. pylori and humans is thought to be present since the origin of modern humans. The H. pylori genome encodes for an exceptional number of restriction and modifications (R-M) systems. To evaluate if R-M(More)
MOTIVATION The genomic methylation analysis is useful to type bacteria that have a high number of expressed type II methyltransferases. Methyltransferases are usually committed to Restriction and Modification (R-M) systems, in which the restriction endonuclease imposes high pressure on the expression of the cognate methyltransferase that hinder R-M system(More)
Helicobacter pylori genetic diversity is known to be influenced by mobile genomic elements. Here we focused on prophages, the least characterized mobile elements of H. pylori. We present the full genomic sequences, insertion sites and phylogenetic analysis of 28 prophages found in H. pylori isolates from patients of distinct disease types, ranging from(More)
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