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A comprehensive understanding of the origin and spread of plastids remains an important yet elusive goal in the field of eukaryotic evolution. Combined with the discovery of new photosynthetic and non-photosynthetic protist lineages, the results of recent taxonomically broad phylogenomic studies suggest that a re-shuffling of higher-level eukaryote(More)
Chaperonins are multisubunit double-ring complexes that mediate the folding of nascent proteins [1] [2]. In bacteria, chaperonins are homo-oligomeric and are composed of seven-membered rings. Eukaryotic and most archaeal chaperonin rings are eight-membered and exhibit varying degrees of hetero-oligomerism [3] [4]. We have cloned and sequenced seven new(More)
Nucleomorphs are residual nuclei derived from eukaryotic endosymbionts in chlorarachniophyte and cryptophyte algae. The endosymbionts that gave rise to nucleomorphs and plastids in these two algal groups were green and red algae, respectively. Despite their independent origin, the chlorarachniophyte and cryptophyte nucleomorph genomes share similar genomic(More)
2006. The platypus in its place: nuclear genes and indels confirm the sister group relation of monotremes and therians. evidence for the last survivor of an ancient kangaroo lineage. of "hyopsodontids" to elephant shrews and a Holarctic origin of Afrotheria. Nature 434:497-501. The new classification of protists from the International Society of(More)
Nucleomorphs are the remnant nuclei of algal endosymbionts that took up residence inside a nonphotosynthetic eukaryotic host. The nucleomorphs of cryptophytes and chlorarachniophytes are derived from red and green algal endosymbionts, respectively, and represent a stunning example of convergent evolution: their genomes have independently been reduced and(More)
The jakobids are free-living mitochondriate protists that share ultrastructural features with certain amitochondriate groups and possess the most bacterial-like mitochondrial genomes described thus far. Jakobids belong to a diverse group of mitochondriate and amitochondriate eukaryotes, the excavate taxa. The relationships among the various excavate taxa(More)
Protein trafficking pathways to plastids are directed by N-terminal targeting peptides. In plants this consists of a relatively simple transit peptide, while in organisms with secondary plastids (which reside within the endomembrane system) a signal peptide is appended to the transit peptide. Despite amino acid compositional differences between organisms,(More)
Understanding the evolution of eukaryotic cellular complexity is one of the grand challenges of modern biology. It has now been firmly established that mitochondria and plastids, the classical membrane-bound organelles of eukaryotic cells, evolved from bacteria by endosymbiosis. In the case of mitochondria, evidence points very clearly to an endosymbiont of(More)
Ubiquitin is a 76 amino acid protein with a remarkable degree of evolutionary conservation. Ubiquitin plays an essential role in a large number of eukaryotic cellular processes by targeting proteins for proteasome-mediated degradation. Most ubiquitin genes are found as head-to-tail polymers whose products are posttranslationally processed to ubiquitin(More)