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Members of the myocyte enhancer factor-2 (MEF2) family of transcription factors associate with myogenic basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors such as MyoD to activate skeletal myogenesis. MEF2 proteins also interact with the class II histone deacetylases HDAC4 and HDAC5, resulting in repression of MEF2-dependent genes. Execution of the muscle(More)
We modeled a segmental oscillator of the timing network that paces the heartbeat of the leech. This model represents a network of six heart interneurons that comprise the basic rhythm-generating network within a single ganglion. This model builds on a previous two cell model (Nadim et al., 1995) by incorporating modifications of intrinsic and synaptic(More)
Neurons in the ventrolateral preoptic nucleus (VLPO) in rats show c-fos activation after sleep and provide GABAergic innervation of the major monoamine arousal systems, suggesting that they may be a necessary part of the brain circuitry that produces sleep. We examined the effects on sleep behavior in rats of cell-specific damage to the VLPO by(More)
We investigated the role of regionally discrete GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid) receptors in the sedative response to pharmacological agents that act on GABA(A) receptors (muscimol, propofol and pentobarbital; 'GABAergic agents') and to ketamine, a general anesthetic that does not affect GABA(A) receptors. Behavioral studies in rats showed that the sedative(More)
TR3, an immediate-early response gene and an orphan member of the steroid-thyroid hormone-retinoid receptor superfamily of transcription factors, regulates apoptosis through an unknown mechanism. In response to apoptotic stimuli, TR3 translocates from the nucleus to mitochondria to induce cytochrome c release and apoptosis. Mitochondrial targeting of TR3,(More)
Skeletal muscle differentiation is controlled by associations between myogenic basic-helix-loop-helix and MEF2 transcription factors. We show that chromatin associated with muscle genes regulated by these transcription factors becomes acetylated during myogenesis and that class II histone deacetylases (HDACs), which interact with MEF2, specifically suppress(More)
Myocyte enhancer factor-2 (MEF2) transcription factors control muscle-specific and growth factor-inducible genes. We show that hypertrophic growth of cardiomyocytes in response to phenylephrine and serum is accompanied by activation of MEF2 through a posttranslational mechanism mediated by calcium, calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaMK), and(More)
Active analog approach has been applied to determine the pharmacophoric conformations of the allylamine antimycotics. Comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA) has been used to establish 3D-QSAR of 48 allylamine antimycotics against six common human pathogenic fungi. Two different alignment rules were compared in the meantime. Five new synthetic(More)
PICK1 is a protein kinase C (PKC) alpha-binding protein initially identified using the yeast two-hybrid system. Here we report that PICK1 contains a PDZ domain that interacts specifically with a previously unidentified PDZ-binding domain (QSAV) at the extreme COOH terminus of PKCalpha and that mutation of a putative carboxylate-binding loop within the PICK1(More)
The Sahel, the transition zone between the Saharan desert and the rainforests of Central Africa and the Guinean Coast, experienced a severe drying trend from the 1950s to the 1980s, from which there has been partial recovery. Continuation of either the drying trend or the more recent ameliorating trend would have far-ranging implications for the economy and(More)