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This study describes comprehensive polling of transcription start and termination sites and analysis of previously unidentified full-length complementary DNAs derived from the mouse genome. We identify the 5' and 3' boundaries of 181,047 transcripts with extensive variation in transcripts arising from alternative promoter usage, splicing, and(More)
Although the immediate receptors (immunophilins) of the immunosuppressants cyclosporin A (CsA) and FK506 are distinct, their similar mechanisms of inhibition of cell signaling suggest that their associated immunophilin complexes interact with a common target. We report here that the complexes cyclophilin-CsA and FKBP-FK506 (but not cyclophilin, FKBP,(More)
Metallothioneins (MT) are low-molecular-weight, cysteine-rich, metal-binding proteins. MT genes are readily induced by various physiologic and toxicologic stimuli. Because the cysteines in MT are absolutely conserved across species, it was suspected that the cysteines are necessary for function and MT is essential for life. In attempts to determine the(More)
Leptin is the primary signal through which the hypothalamus senses nutritional state and modulates food intake and energy balance. Leptin reduces food intake by upregulating anorexigenic (appetite-reducing) neuropeptides, such as alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone, and downregulating orexigenic (appetite-stimulating) factors, primarily neuropeptide Y.(More)
Neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus of adult rodents is regulated by NMDA receptors, adrenal steroids, environmental stimuli, and seizures. To determine whether ischemia affects neurogenesis, newly divided cells in the dentate gyrus were examined after transient global ischemia in adult gerbils. 5-Bromo-2'-deoxyuridine-5'-monophosphate (BrdU)(More)
In Arabidopsis thaliana, the Salt Overly Sensitive 2 (SOS2) gene is required for intracellular Na(+) and K(+) homeostasis. Mutations in SOS2 cause Na(+) and K(+) imbalance and render plants more sensitive toward growth inhibition by high Na(+) and low K(+) environments. We isolated the SOS2 gene through positional cloning. SOS2 is predicted to encode a(More)
GLT-1, GLAST, and EAAC1 are high-affinity, Na(+)-dependent glutamate transporters identified in rat forebrain. The expression of these transporter subtypes was characterized in three preparations: undifferentiated rat cortical astrocyte cultures, astrocytes cocultured with cortical neurons, and astrocyte cultures differentiated with dibutyryl cyclic AMP(More)
The salt tolerance gene SOS3 (for salt overly sensitive3) of Arabidopsis is predicted to encode a calcium binding protein with an N-myristoylation signature sequence. Here, we examine the myristoylation and calcium binding properties of SOS3 and their functional significance in plant tolerance to salt. Treatment of young Arabidopsis seedlings with the(More)
A large genetic screen for sos (for salt overly sensitive) mutants was performed in an attempt to isolate mutations in any gene with an sos phenotype. Our search yielded 28 new alleles of sos1, nine mutant alleles of a newly identified locus, SOS2, and one allele of a third salt tolerance locus, SOS3. The sos2 mutations, which are recessive, were mapped to(More)