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Increased matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) proteolytic activity contributes to the pathogenesis of many neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative conditions in the CNS. To fully understand this process, it is important to define the MMP expression profile of specific cell types, including the CNS-resident cells astrocytes and microglia. While previous studies(More)
Virus infections and autoimmune disease have long been linked. These infections often precede the occurrence of inflammation in the target organ. Several mechanisms often used to explain the association of autoimmunity and virus infection are molecular mimicry, bystander activation (with or without epitope spreading), and viral persistence. These mechanisms(More)
Microorganisms induce strong immune responses, most of which are specific for their encoded antigens. However, microbial infections can also trigger responses against self antigens (autoimmunity), and it has been proposed that this phenomenon could underlie several chronic human diseases, such as type 1 diabetes and multiple sclerosis. Nevertheless, despite(More)
Neonates are particularly susceptible to coxsackievirus infections of the central nervous system (CNS), which can cause meningitis, encephalitis, and long-term neurological deficits. However, viral tropism and mechanism of spread in the CNS have not been examined. Here we investigate coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) tropism and pathology in the CNS of neonatal(More)
Apomixis, the asexual production of seed, is a trait estimated to occur in fewer than 1% of flowering plant species, with an uneven distribution among lineages. In the past decade, targeted research efforts have aimed at clarifying the genetic basis of apomixis, with the goal of engineering or breeding apomictic crops. Recent work suggests a simple genetic(More)
Although many viruses have been isolated from patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), as yet, no one agent has been demonstrated to cause MS. In contrast, epidemiological data indicate that viral infections are associated with exacerbations of MS. Here, we present data showing that virus infections can subclinically prime animals for central nervous system(More)
Intracranial infection of normal mice with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) causes meningitis and death mediated by CD8+ major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I-restricted cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). beta 2-Microglobulin-deficient mice (beta 2M-/-) do not express functional MHC class I proteins and do not produce significant numbers of(More)
Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV) infection and relapsing-remitting experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (R-EAE) have been used to investigate the viral and autoimmune etiology of multiple sclerosis (MS), a possible Th1-type mediated disease. DNA immunization is a novel vaccination strategy in which few harmful effects have been reported.(More)
Relapsing-remitting experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (R-EAE) is an animal model for multiple sclerosis (MS). Many potential immunomodulatory strategies for MS have been used first in EAE to assess their effectiveness. Recently, the injection of plasmid DNA has been shown to induce potent humoral and cellular immune responses. The primary aim of our(More)
The resting electroencephalogram of monozygotic twins and genetically unrelated controls was analyzed with the ordinary spectrum and with the bispectrum. Both the ordinary spectrum which measures linear EEG wave activity and the bispectrum which detects non-linear and correlated frequency activity had evidence for a genetic basis. It is suggested that there(More)