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OBJECTIVE Individuals with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) have a high risk of developing NIDDM. The purpose of this study was to determine whether diet and exercise interventions in those with IGT may delay the development of NIDDM, i.e., reduce the incidence of NIDDM, and thereby reduce the overall incidence of diabetic complications, such as(More)
The cytochrome P450s (CYPs) constitute a superfamily of isoforms that play an important role in the oxidative metabolism of drugs. Each CYP isoform possesses a characteristic broad spectrum of catalytic activities of substrates. Whenever 2 or more drugs are administered concurrently, the possibility of drug interactions exists. The ability of a single CYP(More)
The bacterium Escherichia coli O157:H7 is a worldwide threat to public health and has been implicated in many outbreaks of haemorrhagic colitis, some of which included fatalities caused by haemolytic uraemic syndrome. Close to 75,000 cases of O157:H7 infection are now estimated to occur annually in the United States. The severity of disease, the lack of(More)
The inhibitory effects of six commonly used calcium channel blockers on three major cytochrome P-450 activities were examined and characterized in human liver microsomes. All six compounds reversibly inhibited CYP2D6 (bufuralol 1'-hydroxylation) and CYP2C9 (tolbutamide methyl hydroxylation) activities. The IC(50) values for the inhibition of CYP2D6 and(More)
The mechanisms by which neurotransmitter receptors are immobilized at postsynaptic sites in neurons are largely unknown. The activity of NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartate) receptors is mechanosensitive and dependent on the integrity of actin, suggesting a functionally important interaction between NMDA receptors and the postsynaptic cytoskeleton. alpha-Actinin-2,(More)
Cachexia is a chronic state of negative energy balance and muscle wasting that is a severe complication of cancer and chronic infection. While cytokines such as IL-1alpha, IL-1beta, and TNFalpha can mediate cachectic states, how these molecules affect energy expenditure is unknown. We show here that many cytokines activate the transcriptional PPAR gamma(More)
Forced expression of gap junction proteins, connexins, enables gap junction-deficient cell lines to propagate intercellular calcium waves. Here, we show that ATP secretion from the poorly coupled cell lines, C6 glioma, HeLa, and U373 glioblastoma, is potentiated 5- to 15-fold by connexin expression. ATP release required purinergic receptor-activated(More)
Glutamate neurotoxicity has been implicated in stroke, head trauma, multiple sclerosis and neurodegenerative diseases. Although recent data show that cultured glioma cells secrete glutamate, the growth potential of brain tumors has not yet been linked to an excitotoxic mechanism. Using bioluminescence detection of glutamate release from freshly prepared(More)
The active forms of all marketed hydroxymethylglutaryl (HMG)-CoA reductase inhibitors share a common dihydroxy heptanoic or heptenoic acid side chain. In this study, we present evidence for the formation of acyl glucuronide conjugates of the hydroxy acid forms of simvastatin (SVA), atorvastatin (AVA), and cerivastatin (CVA) in rat, dog, and human liver(More)
Gap junctions are conductive channels that connect the interiors of coupled cells. We determined whether gap junctions propagate transcellular signals during metabolic stress and whether such signaling exacerbates cell injury. Although overexpression of the human proto-oncogene bcl2 in C6 glioma cells normally increased their resistance to injury, the(More)