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This review discusses whether deficient inhibitory motor control is the core deficit of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Inhibitory motor control is commonly assessed using the stop-signal paradigm. Since the last meta-analysis that was performed, 33 new studies have appeared. The current meta-analysis revealed a significant difference(More)
Recent brain imaging studies provided evidence that the brain areas involved with attentional orienting and the preparation of saccades largely overlap, which may indicate that focusing attention at a specific location can be considered as an unexecuted saccade towards that location (i.e. the premotor theory of attention). Alternatively, it may be proposed(More)
BACKGROUND The purpose of the study was to investigate and identify abnormal brain activity, as revealed by event-related potentials (ERPs) concurring with deficient inhibitory control in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). METHODS Performance and ERPs from 16 children with ADHD and 16 control subjects were compared in the(More)
Previous source analyses of event-related potential (ERP) data elicited in Go/NoGo tasks have suggested that the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) plays an important role in response inhibition. So far, however, source models were derived for the difference wave Go stimulus minus NoGo stimulus. This difference wave is confounded with motor- and(More)
RATIONALE Pre-clinical and clinical investigations have provided a great deal of evidence that the fear-potentiated startle paradigm represents a valid model for the objective assessment of emotional states of anxiety and fear. OBJECTIVE The four studies presented in this report sought to further validate the "threat of shock" paradigm as a human analogue(More)
This study investigated the nature and dynamics of the top-down control mechanisms that afford attentional selection using event-related potentials (ERPs) and dipole-source modeling. Subjects performed a task in which they were cued to direct attention to color, location, a conjunction of color and location or no specific feature on a trial-by-trial basis.(More)
How do we detect changes in our visual environment? By continuously comparing visual inputs to templates of experiences in the immediate past? Or by determining their rareness, how infrequently a visual event occurred previously? Recent results from event-related potentials have been interpreted in favour of the first hypothesis, as in the case of the(More)
Previous reviews and meta-analyses that addressed abnormal Stroop interference in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) yielded mixed results. The authors of the present study argue that the inconsistencies may reflect the problematic nature of 2 frequently used methods to quantify Stroop interference-the difference score and Golden's method (C.(More)
OBJECTIVES Physiological correlates of visual selective attention have been observed by recording ERPs to attended versus ignored target stimuli. Over many such studies, spatial attention has been observed to modulate early sensory components beginning 70 ms after stimulus onset, while effects of selection based on other stimulus features such as color and(More)
In the stop-signal task, subjects should withhold their response in a choice reaction time task when a stop-signal, usually a tone, is presented. Successful stops have been associated with event-related potentials (ERPs) featuring a larger frontocentral positivity relative to failed stops. The functional interpretation of this stop-P3 has been disputed,(More)