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In this study, we examined changes in expression of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV (CaMKIV) in the mouse brain following chronic morphine treatment. Double immunohistochemical staining showed strong colocalization of CaMKIV with mu-opioid receptors. Chronic treatment with morphine produced an increase in expression of CaMKIV and(More)
Bipolar disorder (BD) is a heritable neuropsychiatric disorder with largely unknown pathogenesis. Given their prominent role in brain function and disease, we hypothesized that microRNAs (miRNAs) might be of importance for BD. Here we show that levels of miR-34a, which is predicted to target multiple genes implicated as genetic risk factors for BD, are(More)
OBJECTIVES   Regulation of gene expression is important for the development and function of the nervous system. However, the transcriptional programs altered in psychiatric diseases are not completely characterized. Human gene association studies and analysis of mutant mice suggest that the transcription factor specificity protein 4 (SP4) may be implicated(More)
The regulation of transcription factor function in response to neuronal activity is important for development and function of the nervous system. The transcription factor Sp4 regulates the developmental patterning of dendrites, contributes to complex processes including learning and memory, and has been linked to psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia(More)
The molecular pathogenesis of bipolar disorder (BPD) is poorly understood. Using human-induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) to unravel such mechanisms in polygenic diseases is generally challenging. However, hiPSCs from BPD patients responsive to lithium offered unique opportunities to discern lithium's target and hence gain molecular insight into BPD.(More)
The AKT family of serine-threonine kinases functions downstream of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) to transmit signals by direct phosphorylation of a number of targets, including the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β), and β-catenin. AKT binds to phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-triphosphate (PIP3) generated by PI3K(More)
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