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Although many viruses have been isolated from patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), as yet, no one agent has been demonstrated to cause MS. In contrast, epidemiological data indicate that viral infections are associated with exacerbations of MS. Here, we present data showing that virus infections can subclinically prime animals for central nervous system(More)
Intracranial infection of normal mice with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) causes meningitis and death mediated by CD8+ major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I-restricted cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). beta 2-Microglobulin-deficient mice (beta 2M-/-) do not express functional MHC class I proteins and do not produce significant numbers of(More)
Research on Parkinson's disease (PD) has mainly focused on the degeneration of the dopaminergic neurons of nigro-striatal pathway; however, post-mortem studies have demonstrated that other brain regions such as the locus coeruleus (LC) and raphe nuclei (RN) are significantly affected as well. Degeneration of these crucial neuronal cell bodies may be(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by progressive dopaminergic cell loss; however, the noradrenergic system exhibits degeneration as well. Noradrenergic deficit in PD may be responsible for certain non-motor symptoms of the pathology, including psychiatric disorders and cognitive decline. The aim of this study was to generate a(More)
The resting electroencephalogram of monozygotic twins and genetically unrelated controls was analyzed with the ordinary spectrum and with the bispectrum. Both the ordinary spectrum which measures linear EEG wave activity and the bispectrum which detects non-linear and correlated frequency activity had evidence for a genetic basis. It is suggested that there(More)
A frequency-domain technique for compensating for eye artifacts in mid-line scalp EEG when power spectra are to be calculated is reported. It has been tested in 12 subjects during voluntary and random eye movements. The method which involves calculating the ratio of EEG and EOG spectra adequately controls for low-frequency components in the EEG due to eye(More)
Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV) infection and relapsing-remitting experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (R-EAE) have been used to investigate the viral and autoimmune etiology of multiple sclerosis (MS), a possible Th1-type mediated disease. DNA immunization is a novel vaccination strategy in which few harmful effects have been reported.(More)
CD8-positive T cells protect the body against viral pathogens by two important mechanisms: production of antiviral cytokines and lysis of infected cells. Cytokine production can have both local and systemic consequences, whereas cytolytic activity is limited to infected cells that are in direct contact with T cells. Here we analyse activated CD8-positive T(More)
Some childhood learning disabilities are associated with altered synchrony patterns of brain evoked potentials. Scalp recorded electrical synchrony between selected brain regions was measured in response to visual, auditory and somatosensory stimuli and compared between a group of learning disabled children and a group of normal children. Statistically(More)
Although primary antiviral CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) can be induced in mice depleted of CD4+ T cells, the role of CD4+ T lymphocytes in the generation and maintenance of antiviral memory CTL is uncertain. This question, and the consequences upon vaccine-mediated protection, were investigated in transgenic CD4 knockout (CD4ko) mice, which lack CD4+(More)