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Interleukin 1 (IL-1) is a cytokine released during immune activation that mediates the host's response to infection and inflammation. Peripheral and central injections of IL-1 induce fever and sickness behavior, including decreased food motivation and reduced interest in social activities. To determine the receptor mechanisms responsible for these effects,(More)
Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) is one of a small number of proteins with neurotrophic activities distinct from nerve growth factor (NGF). CNTF has now been purified and cloned and the primary structure of CNTF from rabbit sciatic nerve has been determined. Biologically active CNTF has been transiently expressed from a rabbit complementary DNA clone.(More)
To investigate the contribution of IL-1, IL-6, and TNF to the increased osteoclastogenesis induced by estrogen deficiency, ovariectomized (ovx) mice were treated with either IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra), a competitive inhibitor of IL-1, TNF binding protein (TNFbp), an inhibitor of TNF, or the anti-IL-6 antibody (Ab) 20F3 for the first 2 wk after(More)
Although numerous cytokines, including interleukin (IL)-1, IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor, circulate in critically ill patients at risk for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), none clearly predict the development of the syndrome. We hypothesized that cytokines, such as IL-1ra, IL-10, and IL-4, which modulate inflammation, might contribute to or(More)
Considerable evidence supports the hypothesis that estrogen prevents bone loss by blocking the production of cytokines in bone or bone marrow. However, controversy remains on the role of candidate factors, such as interleukin-1 (IL-1), IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF). As IL-1 and TNF have many additive and/or synergistic effects in bone, we tested the(More)
Circulating concentrations of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF), interleukin (IL)-1 beta, IL-6, IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra), and soluble TNF receptors p55 (sTNFr-55) and p75 (sTNFr-75) and ex vivo production of TNF, IL-1, IL-6, and IL-1ra using a whole blood culture system were measured during the acute and convalescent stages of meningococcal(More)
Interleukin-1 (IL-1), a potent stimulant of bone resorption, has been implicated in the pathogenesis of postmenopausal osteoporosis, because monocyte IL-1 bioactivity increases after the menopause and is decreased by estrogen and progesterone (EP) replacement. As IL-1 bioactivity reflect the production of both IL-1 and the IL-1 inhibitor, IL-1 receptor(More)
The role of interleukin-1 (IL-1) in the pathogenesis of experimental crescentic glomerulonephritis was investigated. Administration of the interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra) was used to block the action of IL-1 during disease development. Two groups of six rats were primed with rabbit IgG, followed five days later by injection of rabbit anti-GBM(More)
The genome of human hepatitis B virus (HBV) contains an enhancer element within a 360-base-pair transcribed region located between sequences encoding the virus surface and core antigens. Beyond the usual properties associated with enhancers (i.e., activity 5' or 3' of a heterologous promoter and relative orientation independence), DNA sequences encompassing(More)
An inhibitor of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) has been isolated from the human histiocytic lymphoma cell line U-937 that is capable of inhibiting both TNF-alpha and TNF-beta. Protein sequencing has verified that it is distinct from a previously described TNF inhibitor that is a soluble fragment of a TNF receptor molecule (TNFrI). The cDNA sequence of this(More)