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Reliable and comprehensive measurement data from large-scale fire tests is needed for validation of computer fire models, but is subject to various uncertainties, including radiation errors in temperature measurement. Here, a simple method for post-processing thermocouple data is demonstrated, within the scope of a series of large-scale fire tests, in order(More)
In this work, the kinetic parameters governing the thermal and oxidative degradation of flexible polyurethane foam are determined using thermogravimetric data and a genetic algorithm. These kinetic parameters are needed in the theoretical modeling of the foam's smoldering behavior. Experimental thermogravimetric mass-loss data are used to explore the(More)
This paper provides a 'state of the art' review of research into the effects of high temperature on concrete and concrete structures, extending to a range of forms of construction, including novel developments. The nature of concrete-based structures means that they generally perform very well in fire. However, concrete is fundamentally a complex material(More)
A review of research into the burning behaviour of large pool fires and fuel spill fires is presented. The features which distinguish such fires from smaller pool fires are mainly associated with the fire dynamics at low source Froude numbers and the radiative interaction with the fire source. In hydrocarbon fires, higher soot levels at increased diameters(More)
Fire is a phenomenon that covers a multiplicity of scales depending on the different processes involved. Length scales range from the nanometres when addressing material flammability to the kilometres when dealing with forest fires, while time scales cover a broad spectrum too. Heating of structural elements can be measured in hours while characteristic(More)
A computational study has been carried out to investigate smouldering ignition and propagation in polyurethane foam. The one-dimensional, transient, governing equations for smouldering combustion in a porous fuel are solved accounting for improved solid-phase chemical kinetics. Forward and opposed smouldering modes are examine and the model describes well(More)
Results are presented from a model of forward smoldering combustion of polyurethane foam in microgravity. The transient one-dimensional numerical-model is based on that developed at the University of Texas at Austin. The conservation equations of energy, species and mass in the porous solid and in the gas phases are numerically solved. The solid and the gas(More)
The durability of various typical tunnel sections in the event of a prescribed 100 MW fire has been assessed. Cast-iron sections, precast concrete sections and in-situ concrete cut and cover sections are all considered to be part of a 1 km long road tunnel. An analysis of the tunnel constructions and surrounding geology (based on a real tunnel) has led to(More)
A new approach for the rapid destruction of human waste using smouldering combustion is presented. Recently, self-sustaining smouldering combustion was shown to destroy the organic component of simulated human solid waste and dog faeces resulting in the sanitization of all pathogens using a batch process (Yermán et al., 2015). Here, a continuous smouldering(More)