J. L. Temple

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Caffeine is a widely used psychoactive substance in both adults and children that is legal, easy to obtain, and socially acceptable to consume. Although once relatively restricted to use among adults, caffeine-containing drinks are now consumed regularly by children. In addition, some caffeine-containing beverages are specifically marketed to children as(More)
GnRH is the master neuropeptide that coordinates and regulates reproduction in all vertebrates and in some nonvertebrate species. Sixteen forms of GnRH have been isolated in brain. In the vast majority of species, two or more forms occur in anatomically and developmental distinct neuronal populations. In mammalian brain, two GnRH forms, mammalian (GnRH-I)(More)
Eating represents a choice among many alternative behaviors. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of how food reinforcement and behavioral choice theory are related to eating and to show how this theoretical approach may help organize research on eating from molecular genetics through treatment and prevention of obesity. Special emphasis is(More)
Pulsatile secretion of gonadotropin-releasing hormone-1 (GnRH-1) is essential for reproduction. GnRH-1 induces gonadotropin release and is regulated by 17beta-estradiol (E2). Although a subpopulation of GnRH-1 neurons expresses estrogen receptor (ER) beta, it is unclear whether E2 acts directly on GnRH-1 neurons or indirectly through interneuronal(More)
Research has shown that animals and humans habituate on a variety of behavioral and physiological responses to repeated presentations of food cues, and habituation is related to amount of food consumed and cessation of eating. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of experimental paradigms used to study habituation, integrate a theoretical(More)
The phytoestrogen coumestrol has estrogenic actions on peripheral reproductive tissues. Yet in the brain this compound has both estrogenic and anti-estrogenic effects. We used estrogen receptor alpha knockout mice (ERalphaKO) to determine whether coumestrol has estrogenic actions in mice and also if these effects are mediated by the classic ERalpha. Female(More)
BACKGROUND The reinforcing value of food is a reliable index of motivation to eat and energy intake. Obese adults find food more reinforcing than do nonobese adults. OBJECTIVE The present study was designed to assess whether the relative reinforcing value of food differs as a function of weight status in 8-12-y-old children and whether the relative(More)
Response properties of peripheral afferent fibers supplying the vagina and uterus of the rat vary with estrous stage (Robbins A, Berkley KJ, Sato Y. Estrous cycle variation of afferent fibers supplying reproductive organs in the female rat. Brain Res 1992,596:353-356), suggesting that behavioral sensitivity to vaginal and uterine stimulation might similarly(More)
The authors measured food reinforcement, polymorphisms of the dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) and dopamine transporter (DAT1) genes, and laboratory energy intake in 29 obese and 45 nonobese humans 18-40 years old. Food reinforcement was greater in obese than in nonobese individuals, especially in obese individuals with the TaqI A1 allele. Energy intake was(More)
BACKGROUND Sedentary activities, such as watching television, may disrupt habituation to food cues, thereby increasing motivation to eat and energy intake. OBJECTIVE These experiments were designed to examine the effect of television watching on habituation of ingestive behavior in children. DESIGN In experiment 1, all children worked for access to(More)